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Open AccessArticle

Novel Biomarkers in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: An Analysis of Patients Enrolled in the GCKD-Study

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Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Cardiology, Paracelsus Medical University of Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
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Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology and Vascular Medicine, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
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Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Nephrology, Paracelsus Medical University of Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
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Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Cardiology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany
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Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
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Department of Medicine IV – Nephrology and Primary Care, Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Medical Center–University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
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Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
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Department of Internal Medicine III, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030886 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 January 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 19 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomarkers for Heart Disease)
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) often occur concomitantly, and CKD is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Since some of the most commonly used biomarkers in CVD are permanently elevated in patients with CKD, novel biomarkers are warranted for clinical practice. Methods: Plasma concentrations of five cardiovascular biomarkers (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity (sST2), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGF-BP2), and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) were analyzed by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 219 patients with CKD enrolled in the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. Results: Except for sST2, all of the investigated biomarkers were significantly elevated in patients with CKD (2.0- to 4.4-fold increase in advanced CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 mL/min/1.73 m² body surface area (BSA)) and showed a significant inverse correlation with eGFR. Moreover, all but H-FABP and sST2 were additionally elevated in patients with micro- and macro-albuminuria. Conclusions: Based on our findings, sST2 appears to be the biomarker whose diagnostic performance is least affected by decreased renal function, thus suggesting potential viability in the management of patients with CVD and concomitant CKD. The predictive potential of sST2 remains to be proven in endpoint studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: CKD; CVD; biomarkers; sST2 CKD; CVD; biomarkers; sST2
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Mirna, M.; Topf, A.; Wernly, B.; Rezar, R.; Paar, V.; Jung, C.; Salmhofer, H.; Kopp, K.; Hoppe, U.C.; Schulze, P.C.; Kretzschmar, D.; Schneider, M.P.; Schultheiss, U.T.; Sommerer, C.; Paul, K.; Wolf, G.; Lichtenauer, M.; Busch, M. Novel Biomarkers in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: An Analysis of Patients Enrolled in the GCKD-Study. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 886.

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