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Correction: Association between Gait Deviation Index and Physical Function in Children with Bilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Study. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 28
Open AccessArticle

Correlates of Normal and Abnormal General Movements in Infancy and Long-Term Neurodevelopment of Preterm Infants: Insights from Functional Connectivity Studies at Term Equivalence

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60422, USA
2
Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Science and the Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
3
Research Unit IDN, Interdisciplinary Developmental Neuroscience, Division of Phoniatrics, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria
4
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
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Clinics of Clinical Services, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
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Department of Pediatrics, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL 60201, USA
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Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60422, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-Senior Author.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030834
Received: 16 January 2020 / Revised: 14 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
Preterm infants born before 32 weeks gestation have increased risks for neurodevelopmental impairment at two years of age. How brain function differs between preterm infants with normal or impaired development is unknown. However, abnormal spontaneous motor behavior at 12–15 weeks post-term age is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. We imaged brain blood oxygen level-dependent signals at term-equivalent age in 62 infants born at <32 weeks gestation and explored whether resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) differed with performances on the General Movement Assessment (GMA) at 12–15 weeks, and Bayley III scores at two years of corrected age. Infants with aberrant general movements exhibited decreased rsFC between the basal ganglia and regions in parietal and frontotemporal lobes. Infants with normal Bayley III cognitive scores exhibited increased rsFC between the basal ganglia and association cortices in parietal and occipital lobes compared with cognitively impaired children. Infants with normal motor scores exhibited increased rsFC between the basal ganglia and visual cortices, compared with children with motor impairment. Thus, the presence of abnormal general movements is associated with region-specific differences in rsFC at term. The association of abnormal long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes with decreased rsFC between basal ganglia and sub-score specific cortical regions may provide biomarkers of neurodevelopmental trajectory and outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: general movements; perinatal brain injury; functional brain connectivity; preterm infant; Bayley scale; fidgety movements general movements; perinatal brain injury; functional brain connectivity; preterm infant; Bayley scale; fidgety movements
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Peyton, C.; Einspieler, C.; Fjørtoft, T.; Adde, L.; Schreiber, M.D.; Drobyshevsky, A.; Marks, J.D. Correlates of Normal and Abnormal General Movements in Infancy and Long-Term Neurodevelopment of Preterm Infants: Insights from Functional Connectivity Studies at Term Equivalence. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 834.

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