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Article

Assessment of the Psychological Situation in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease

1
Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease, German Heart Center Munich, Technical University Munich, 80636 Munich, Germany
2
Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Chair of Sport Psychology, Technical University Munich, 80809 Munich, Germany
3
School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4067, Australia
4
Clinic and Policlinic for Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, School of Medicine, Technical University Munich, 81675 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030779
Received: 30 January 2020 / Revised: 2 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
Background: Due to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD), the number of adults who are surviving with congenital heart disease (ACHD) is constantly growing. Until recently, the psychological effects of CHD had been widely neglected. Current research provides evidence for an increased risk of emotional distress in ACHD. The concept of illness identity attempts to explain how patients experience and integrate their CHD into their identities. The present study investigated illness identity in relation to clinical parameters and psychological functioning. Psychometric properties of the German version of the Illness Identity Questionnaire (IIQD) were examined. Methods: Self-reported measures on illness identity and psychological functioning (HADS-D) were assessed in a representative sample of 229 ACHD (38 ± 12.5 (18−73) years; 45% female) at the German Heart Center Munich. Descriptive analyses and multiple regression models were conducted. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the IIQD. Results: The IIQD demonstrated good reliability. The originally-postulated four-factor structure could not be replicated. Anatomic disease complexity and functional status significantly influenced illness identity. Illness identity accounted for unique variances in depression and anxiety: Maladaptive illness identity states (i.e., , engulfment and rejection) were associated with higher emotional distress, whereas adaptive illness (i.e., , acceptance and enrichment) identity states were linked to lower emotional distress. Conclusions: Illness Identity emerged as a predictor of emotional distress in ACHD. Findings raise the possibility that interventions designed to target a patient’s illness identity may improve psychological well-being and cardiac outcomes in ACHD. View Full-Text
Keywords: adults with congenital heart disease; psychological situation; illness identity; prevention; anxiety; depression adults with congenital heart disease; psychological situation; illness identity; prevention; anxiety; depression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Andonian, C.; Beckmann, J.; Ewert, P.; Freilinger, S.; Kaemmerer, H.; Oberhoffer-Fritz, R.; Sack, M.; Neidenbach, R. Assessment of the Psychological Situation in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030779

AMA Style

Andonian C, Beckmann J, Ewert P, Freilinger S, Kaemmerer H, Oberhoffer-Fritz R, Sack M, Neidenbach R. Assessment of the Psychological Situation in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(3):779. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030779

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andonian, Caroline, Jürgen Beckmann, Peter Ewert, Sebastian Freilinger, Harald Kaemmerer, Renate Oberhoffer-Fritz, Martin Sack, and Rhoia Neidenbach. 2020. "Assessment of the Psychological Situation in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 3: 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030779

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