Purpose: To introduce new biopsy techniques and imaging features of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for targeting Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 4 and 5 lesions Methods: TRUS-guided targeted and/or systematic biopsies were performed in 432 men with PI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions following magnetic resonance imaging examination. A TRUS operator who was familiar with the new techniques and imaging features performed lesion detection. Overall and significant cancer detection rates (CDRs) were compared among the men with PI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions. The CDRs in the peripheral and transition zones were compared. Additionally, we assessed whether targeted or systematic biopsies contributed to cancer detection. The standard reference was a biopsy examination. Results: The overall CDRs in the men with PI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions were 49.5% (139/281) and 74.8% (113/151) (p
< 0.0001); significant CDRs were 33.1% (93/281) and 58.3% (88/151) (p
< 0.0001); and CDRs in the peripheral and transition zones were 53.6% (187/349) and 78.3% (65/83) (p
< 0.0001), respectively. Of the 139 men with clinically significant cancer PI-RADS 4 lesions, 107 (77.0%) were diagnosed by targeted biopsy, 5 (3.6%) by systematic biopsy, and 27 (19.4%) by both. Of the 113 men with clinically significant cancer PI-RADS 5 lesions, 97 (85.8%) were diagnosed by targeted biopsy, 3 (2.7%) by systematic biopsy, and 13 (11.5%) by both. Conclusions: Most PI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions can be targeted with TRUS if the new techniques and imaging features are applied.
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