Next Article in Journal
Treatment of Anti-HLA Donor-Specific Antibodies Results in Increased Infectious Complications and Impairs Survival after Liver Transplantation
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Preparation Design, Marginal Gingiva Location, and Tooth Morphology on the Accuracy of Digital Impressions for Full-Crown Restorations: An In Vitro Investigation
Open AccessReview

Stimuli Characteristics and Psychophysical Requirements for Visual Training in Amblyopia: A Narrative Review

1
Group of Optics and Visual Perception, Department of Optics, Pharmacology and Anatomy, University of Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03016 Alicante, Spain
2
Clinical Optometry Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Vithas Medimar International Hospital, 03016 Alicante, Spain
3
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
4
Group of Applied Clinical Neurosciences and Advanced Data Analysis, Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
5
Stroke Unit and Stroke Program, Department of Neurology, Universitary Hospital, University of Valladolid, 47003 Valladolid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3985; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123985
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
Active vision therapy using perceptual learning and/or dichoptic or binocular environments has shown its potential effectiveness in amblyopia, but some doubts remain about the type of stimuli and the mode and sequence of presentation that should be used. A search was performed in PubMed, obtaining 143 articles with information related to the stimuli used in amblyopia rehabilitation, as well as to the neural mechanisms implied in such therapeutic process. Visual deficits in amblyopia and their neural mechanisms associated are revised, including visual acuity loss, contrast sensitivity reduction and stereopsis impairment. Likewise, the most appropriate stimuli according to the literature that should be used for an efficient rehabilitation of the amblyopic eye are described in detail, including optotypes, Gabor’s patches, random-dot stimuli and Vernier’s stimuli. Finally, the properties of these stimuli that can be modified during the visual training are discussed, as well as the psychophysical method of their presentation and the type of environment used (perceptual learning, dichoptic stimulation or virtual reality). Vision therapy using all these revised concepts can be an effective option for treating amblyopia or accelerating the treatment period when combining with patching. It is essential to adapt the stimuli to the patient’s individual features in both monocular and binocular training. View Full-Text
Keywords: amblyopia; vision therapy; visual acuity; contrast sensitivity; perceptual learning; dichoptic training amblyopia; vision therapy; visual acuity; contrast sensitivity; perceptual learning; dichoptic training
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hernández-Rodríguez, C.J.; Piñero, D.P.; Molina-Martín, A.; Morales-Quezada, L.; de Fez, D.; Leal-Vega, L.; Arenillas, J.F.; Coco-Martín, M.B. Stimuli Characteristics and Psychophysical Requirements for Visual Training in Amblyopia: A Narrative Review. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3985. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123985

AMA Style

Hernández-Rodríguez CJ, Piñero DP, Molina-Martín A, Morales-Quezada L, de Fez D, Leal-Vega L, Arenillas JF, Coco-Martín MB. Stimuli Characteristics and Psychophysical Requirements for Visual Training in Amblyopia: A Narrative Review. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(12):3985. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123985

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hernández-Rodríguez, Carlos J.; Piñero, David P.; Molina-Martín, Ainhoa; Morales-Quezada, León; de Fez, Dolores; Leal-Vega, Luis; Arenillas, Juan F.; Coco-Martín, María B. 2020. "Stimuli Characteristics and Psychophysical Requirements for Visual Training in Amblyopia: A Narrative Review" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 12: 3985. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123985

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop