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Article

The Differences between Gluten Sensitivity, Intestinal Biomarkers and Immune Biomarkers in Patients with First-Episode and Chronic Schizophrenia

1
1st Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention, Medical University of Lublin, 20-439 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Paediatric Dermatology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-080 Lublin, Poland
4
Chair and Department of Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3707; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113707
Received: 6 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 November 2020 / Published: 18 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot Topics in Schizophrenia Research - Part I)
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder without a fully elucidated etiology and mechanisms. One likely explanation for the development of schizophrenia is low-grade inflammation, possibly caused by processes in the gastrointestinal tract related to gluten sensitivity. The aims of this study were to: (1) compare levels of markers of gluten sensitivity, inflammation and gut permeability, and (2) determine associations between gluten sensitivity, inflammation, and intestinal permeability in patients with first-episode/chronic (FS/CS) schizophrenia and healthy individuals (HC). The total sample comprised 162 individuals (52 FS; 50 CS, and 60 HC). The examination included clinical variables, nutritional assessment, and serum concentrations of: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble CD14 (sCD14), anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA), antigliadin antibodies (AGA) IgA/IgG, antibodies against tissue transglutaminase 2 (anti-tTG) IgA, anti-deamidated gliadin peptides (anti-DGP) IgG. A significant difference between groups was found in sCD14, ASCA, hs-CRP, IL-6 and AGA IgA levels. AGA IgG/IgA levels were higher in the FS (11.54%; 30.77%) and CS (26%; 20%) groups compared to HC. The association between intestinal permeability and inflammation in the schizophrenic patients only was noted. The risk for developing schizophrenia was odds ratio (OR) = 4.35 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23–15.39) for AGA IgA and 3.08 (95% CI 1.19–7.99) for positive AGA IgG. Inflammation and food hypersensitivity reactions initiated by increased intestinal permeability may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The immune response to gluten in FS differs from that found in CS. View Full-Text
Keywords: schizophrenia; low-grade inflammation; gut–brain axis; gut–microbiota–brain axi; inflammation; gut permeability; gluten; IgG antibodies schizophrenia; low-grade inflammation; gut–brain axis; gut–microbiota–brain axi; inflammation; gut permeability; gluten; IgG antibodies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dzikowski, M.; Juchnowicz, D.; Dzikowska, I.; Rog, J.; Próchnicki, M.; Kozioł, M.; Karakula-Juchnowicz, H. The Differences between Gluten Sensitivity, Intestinal Biomarkers and Immune Biomarkers in Patients with First-Episode and Chronic Schizophrenia. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3707. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113707

AMA Style

Dzikowski M, Juchnowicz D, Dzikowska I, Rog J, Próchnicki M, Kozioł M, Karakula-Juchnowicz H. The Differences between Gluten Sensitivity, Intestinal Biomarkers and Immune Biomarkers in Patients with First-Episode and Chronic Schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(11):3707. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113707

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dzikowski, Michał, Dariusz Juchnowicz, Izabela Dzikowska, Joanna Rog, Michał Próchnicki, Małgorzata Kozioł, and Hanna Karakula-Juchnowicz. 2020. "The Differences between Gluten Sensitivity, Intestinal Biomarkers and Immune Biomarkers in Patients with First-Episode and Chronic Schizophrenia" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 11: 3707. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113707

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