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Open AccessArticle

Inhaled Corticosteroids and COVID-19 Risk and Mortality: A Nationwide Cohort Study

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 06973, Korea
2
College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06973, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3406; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113406
Received: 15 October 2020 / Revised: 20 October 2020 / Accepted: 22 October 2020 / Published: 23 October 2020
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) could increase both the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and experiencing poor outcomes. To compare the clinical outcomes between ICS users and nonusers, COVID-19-related claims in the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database were evaluated. To evaluate susceptibility to COVID-19 among patients with COPD or asthma, a nested case-control study was performed using the same database. In total, 7341 patients were confirmed to have COVID-19, including 114 ICS users and 7227 nonusers. Among 5910 patients who were hospitalized, death was observed for 9% of ICS users and 4% of nonusers. However, this association was not significant when adjusted for age, sex, region, comorbidities, and hospital type (aOR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.43–2.07). The case-control analysis of COPD compared 640 cases with COVID-19 to 2560 matched controls without COVID-19, and the analysis of asthma compared 90 cases with COVID-19 to 360 matched controls without COVID-19. Use of ICS was not significantly associated with COVID-19 among patients with COPD (aOR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.46–2.25) or asthma (aOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.13–1.17). Prior ICS use was not significantly associated with COVID-19 in patients with COPD or asthma, nor with clinical outcomes among patients with COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; steroids asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; steroids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, J.C.; Jung, S.-Y.; Yoon, U.A.; You, S.-H.; Kim, M.-S.; Baek, M.S.; Jung, J.-W.; Kim, W.-Y. Inhaled Corticosteroids and COVID-19 Risk and Mortality: A Nationwide Cohort Study. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3406. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113406

AMA Style

Choi JC, Jung S-Y, Yoon UA, You S-H, Kim M-S, Baek MS, Jung J-W, Kim W-Y. Inhaled Corticosteroids and COVID-19 Risk and Mortality: A Nationwide Cohort Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(11):3406. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113406

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choi, Jae C.; Jung, Sun-Young; Yoon, Una A.; You, Seung-Hun; Kim, Myo-Song; Baek, Moon S.; Jung, Jae-Woo; Kim, Won-Young. 2020. "Inhaled Corticosteroids and COVID-19 Risk and Mortality: A Nationwide Cohort Study" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 11: 3406. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113406

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