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Open AccessArticle

Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder Is a Glycogen-Rich Tumor with Poorer Prognosis

1
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
3
Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
4
Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
5
Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
6
Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
7
Department of Neuroscience, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010138
Received: 3 December 2019 / Revised: 29 December 2019 / Accepted: 30 December 2019 / Published: 3 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outcomes and Therapeutic Management of Bladder Cancer)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare variant of urinary bladder carcinoma with a glycogen-rich phenotype and unknown prognosis. Using the National Cancer Institute’s surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program database, we documented recent trends in incidence, mortality, demographical characteristics, and survival on this rare subtype of urinary bladder cancer. The overall age-adjusted incidence and mortality of CCA was 0.087 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.069–0.107) and 0.064 (95% CI: 0.049–0.081) respectively per million population. In comparison to non-CCAs, CCAs were more commonly associated with younger age (<60 years old, p = 0.005), female (p < 0.001), black ethnicity (p = 0.001), grade III (p < 0.001), and higher AJCC 6th staging (p < 0.001). In addition, CCA patients more frequently received complete cystectomy (p < 0.001) and beam radiation (p < 0.001) than non-CCA patients. Our study showed a poorer prognosis of CCAs compared to all other carcinomas of the urinary bladder (p < 0.001), accounted for by higher tumor staging of CCA cases. This study adds to the growing evidence that glycogen-rich cancers may have unique characteristics affecting tumor aggressiveness and patient prognosis. Additional mechanistic studies are needed to assess whether it’s the excess glycogen that contributes to the higher stage at diagnosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycogen; clear-cell adenocarcinoma; urinary bladder; SEER program database glycogen; clear-cell adenocarcinoma; urinary bladder; SEER program database
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, Z.; Kinslow, C.J.; Wang, P.; Huang, B.; Cheng, S.K.; Deutsch, I.; Gentry, M.S.; Sun, R.C. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder Is a Glycogen-Rich Tumor with Poorer Prognosis. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 138. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010138

AMA Style

Zhou Z, Kinslow CJ, Wang P, Huang B, Cheng SK, Deutsch I, Gentry MS, Sun RC. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder Is a Glycogen-Rich Tumor with Poorer Prognosis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(1):138. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010138

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Zhengqiu; Kinslow, Connor J.; Wang, Peng; Huang, Bin; Cheng, Simon K.; Deutsch, Israel; Gentry, Matthew S.; Sun, Ramon C. 2020. "Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder Is a Glycogen-Rich Tumor with Poorer Prognosis" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 1: 138. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010138

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