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Bone Regeneration, Reconstruction and Use of Osteogenic Cells; from Basic Knowledge, Animal Models to Clinical Trials

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The School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, Aberdeen University, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
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Department of Anatomy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-781 Poznan, Poland
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Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-781 Poznan, Poland
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Division of Reproduction, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Gynecologic Oncology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-535 Poznan, Poland
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Physiology Graduate Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
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Department of Diagnostics and Clinical Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun, Poland
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Department of Veterinary Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun, Poland
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Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Dental Research Division, University of Guarulhos, 07030-010 Guarulhos, SP, Brazil
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Department of Biomaterials and Experimental Dentistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-812 Poznan, Poland
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital and Masaryk University, 601 77 Brno, Czech Republic
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Department of Toxicology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-131 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010139
Received: 22 November 2019 / Revised: 21 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 4 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Cytology)
The deterioration of the human skeleton’s capacity for self-renewal occurs naturally with age. Osteoporosis affects millions worldwide, with current treatments including pharmaceutical agents that target bone formation and/or resorption. Nevertheless, these clinical approaches often result in long-term side effects, with better alternatives being constantly researched. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue are known to hold therapeutic value for the treatment of a variety of bone diseases. The following review summarizes the latest studies and clinical trials related to the use of MSCs, both individually and combined with other methods, in the treatment of a variety of conditions related to skeletal health. For example, some of the most recent works noted the advantage of bone grafts based on biomimetic scaffolds combined with MSC and growth factor delivery, with a greatly increased regeneration rate and minimized side effects for patients. This review also highlights the continuing research into the mechanisms underlying bone homeostasis, including the key transcription factors and signalling pathways responsible for regulating the differentiation of osteoblast lineage. Paracrine factors and specific miRNAs are also believed to play a part in MSC differentiation. Furthering the understanding of the specific mechanisms of cellular signalling in skeletal remodelling is key to incorporating new and effective treatment methods for bone disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone; regeneration; reconstruction; osteogenesis; stem; cells bone; regeneration; reconstruction; osteogenesis; stem; cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hutchings, G.; Moncrieff, L.; Dompe, C.; Janowicz, K.; Sibiak, R.; Bryja, A.; Jankowski, M.; Mozdziak, P.; Bukowska, D.; Antosik, P.; Shibli, J.A.; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, M.; Bruska, M.; Kempisty, B.; Piotrowska-Kempisty, H. Bone Regeneration, Reconstruction and Use of Osteogenic Cells; from Basic Knowledge, Animal Models to Clinical Trials. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 139. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010139

AMA Style

Hutchings G, Moncrieff L, Dompe C, Janowicz K, Sibiak R, Bryja A, Jankowski M, Mozdziak P, Bukowska D, Antosik P, Shibli JA, Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska M, Bruska M, Kempisty B, Piotrowska-Kempisty H. Bone Regeneration, Reconstruction and Use of Osteogenic Cells; from Basic Knowledge, Animal Models to Clinical Trials. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(1):139. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010139

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hutchings, Greg; Moncrieff, Lisa; Dompe, Claudia; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Sibiak, Rafał; Bryja, Artur; Jankowski, Maurycy; Mozdziak, Paul; Bukowska, Dorota; Antosik, Paweł; Shibli, Jamil A.; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Marta; Bruska, Małgorzata; Kempisty, Bartosz; Piotrowska-Kempisty, Hanna. 2020. "Bone Regeneration, Reconstruction and Use of Osteogenic Cells; from Basic Knowledge, Animal Models to Clinical Trials" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 1: 139. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010139

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