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Open AccessReview

A Systematic Review of NAFLD-Associated Extrahepatic Disorders in Youths

1
Department of Pediatrics, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(6), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060868
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH))
Background: There is growing evidence that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease affecting not only the liver but also extrahepatic organs. Aim: To investigate whether in youths NAFLD is associated with extrahepatic complications such as subclinical atherosclerosis, cardiac abnormalities, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, decreased bone mineral density, renal dysfunction, obstructive sleep apnea, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: We systematically reviewed PubMed; Scopus; Embase; and the Cochrane Library databases up to 28 February 2019 and assessed the quality of studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: Thirty-five articles were selected for this systematic review: fifteen (4627 participants) evaluated the association of NAFLD with subclinical atherosclerosis; four (969 participants) with cardiac abnormalities; two (550 participants) with hypertension; four (1328 participants) with diabetes; six (523 participants) with low bone mineral density; two (865 participants) with renal dysfunction; one with obstructive sleep apnea; and one with polycystic ovary syndrome. Most studies found that youths with NAFLD have increased features of subclinical atherosclerosis; as well as of cardiac alterations. Limited data were available to endorse a solid estimate of the prevalence of diabetes; low mineral density and renal dysfunction in the pediatric NAFLD population. Conclusion: NAFLD-related intermediate CVD outcomes can occur and be detected early in young populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: NAFLD; subclinical atherosclerosis; cardiac structural and functional abnormalities; hypertension; type 2 diabetes; decreased bone mineral density; renal dysfunction; obstructive sleep apnea; polycystic ovary syndrome; children and adolescents NAFLD; subclinical atherosclerosis; cardiac structural and functional abnormalities; hypertension; type 2 diabetes; decreased bone mineral density; renal dysfunction; obstructive sleep apnea; polycystic ovary syndrome; children and adolescents
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Pacifico, L.; Perla, F.M.; Roggini, M.; Andreoli, G.; D’Avanzo, M.; Chiesa, C. A Systematic Review of NAFLD-Associated Extrahepatic Disorders in Youths. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 868.

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