Next Article in Journal
Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Children and Adolescents with ADHD: Potential Mechanisms and Evidence-based Recommendations
Next Article in Special Issue
Phytomedicine-Based Potent Antioxidant, Fisetin Protects CNS-Insult LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurodegeneration and Memory Impairment
Previous Article in Journal
Occurrence of Antithrombotic Related Adverse Events in Hospitalized Patients: Incidence and Clinical Context between 2008 and 2016
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nuclear Phospho-SOD1 Protects DNA from Oxidative Stress Damage in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Salivary Redox Biomarkers in Different Stages of Dementia Severity

1
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-437 Bialystok, Poland
2
Department of Physiology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-437 Bialystok, Poland
3
Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-437 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(6), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060840
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
PDF [4523 KB, uploaded 12 June 2019]

Abstract

This study is the first to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers in saliva/blood of patients with varying degrees of dementia progression. The study included 50 healthy controls and 50 dementia patients divided into two groups: those with mild and moderate dementia (MMSE 11–23) and patients suffering from severe dementia (MMSE 0–10). Cognitive functions of the subjects were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative damage products and protein glycoxidative modifications were determined in non-stimulated (NWS) and stimulated (SWS) saliva as well as erythrocyte/plasma samples. Generally, in dementia patients, we observed the depletion of antioxidant defences leading to oxidative and glycoxidative damage in NWS, SWS and blood samples. Both salivary and blood oxidative stress increased with the severity of the disease, and correlated with a decrease of cognitive functions. Interestingly, in dementia patients, reduced glutathione (GSH) in NWS correlated not only with the severity of dementia, but also with GSH concentration in the plasma. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we have demonstrated that salivary GSH clearly distinguishes patients with severe dementia from those suffering from mild or moderate dementia (area under the curve (AUC) = 1). Therefore, salivary GSH can be used as a non-invasive biomarker of cognitive impairment.
Keywords: oxidative stress; antioxidants; saliva; redox biomarkers; dementia oxidative stress; antioxidants; saliva; redox biomarkers; dementia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Klimiuk, A.; Maciejczyk, M.; Choromańska, M.; Fejfer, K.; Waszkiewicz, N.; Zalewska, A. Salivary Redox Biomarkers in Different Stages of Dementia Severity. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 840.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top