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Salivary Redox Biomarkers in Different Stages of Dementia Severity

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-437 Bialystok, Poland
Department of Physiology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-437 Bialystok, Poland
Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-437 Bialystok, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(6), 840;
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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This study is the first to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers in saliva/blood of patients with varying degrees of dementia progression. The study included 50 healthy controls and 50 dementia patients divided into two groups: those with mild and moderate dementia (MMSE 11–23) and patients suffering from severe dementia (MMSE 0–10). Cognitive functions of the subjects were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative damage products and protein glycoxidative modifications were determined in non-stimulated (NWS) and stimulated (SWS) saliva as well as erythrocyte/plasma samples. Generally, in dementia patients, we observed the depletion of antioxidant defences leading to oxidative and glycoxidative damage in NWS, SWS and blood samples. Both salivary and blood oxidative stress increased with the severity of the disease, and correlated with a decrease of cognitive functions. Interestingly, in dementia patients, reduced glutathione (GSH) in NWS correlated not only with the severity of dementia, but also with GSH concentration in the plasma. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we have demonstrated that salivary GSH clearly distinguishes patients with severe dementia from those suffering from mild or moderate dementia (area under the curve (AUC) = 1). Therefore, salivary GSH can be used as a non-invasive biomarker of cognitive impairment.
Keywords: oxidative stress; antioxidants; saliva; redox biomarkers; dementia oxidative stress; antioxidants; saliva; redox biomarkers; dementia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Klimiuk, A.; Maciejczyk, M.; Choromańska, M.; Fejfer, K.; Waszkiewicz, N.; Zalewska, A. Salivary Redox Biomarkers in Different Stages of Dementia Severity. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 840.

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