Next Article in Journal
Circulating Soluble CD36 is Similar in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus versus Non-Diabetic Subjects
Next Article in Special Issue
Deep Learning Based on Event-Related EEG Differentiates Children with ADHD from Healthy Controls
Previous Article in Journal
Systemic Inflammation in Metabolic Syndrome: Increased Platelet and Leukocyte Activation, and Key Role of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 and CCL2/CCR2 Axes in Arterial Platelet-Proinflammatory Monocyte Adhesion
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characteristics of ADHD Symptom Response/Remission in a Clinical Trial of Methylphenidate Extended Release
Open AccessArticle

Dietary Profiles, Nutritional Biochemistry Status, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Path Analysis for a Case-Control Study

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan 71703, Taiwan
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center and College of Medicine, Neuroscience Research Center, Chang-Gung University, Linkou, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Mind, Brain, and Consciousness, Taipei Medical University, Taipei and Brain and Consciousness Research Center, TMU Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City 11031, Taiwan
Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Department of Food Safety, Taipei Medical University, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
School of Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 709;
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 May 2019 / Published: 18 May 2019
This study aims to investigate dietary and nutritional biochemistry profiles of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to explore their potential relationship by path analysis. We enrolled 216 children with ADHD and 216 age-, height- and gender-matched controls from 31 elementary schools in Taiwan. Dietary intake of the participants was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Fasting blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of multiple nutritional markers. Moreover, we employed a structural equation model (SEM) to link diet, nutritional markers and ADHD. Compared to healthy control, ADHD children had significantly lower serum levels of vitamin B12, folate, vitamin B6, ferritin concentration, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), but higher levels of serum saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, and inorganic phosphorous concentration. Children with ADHD had more intake of nutrient-poor foods such as high sugar and high fat foods, and had less intake of vegetable, fruit, protein-rich foods than their counterpart. SEM analysis showed that the poor nutritional biochemistry profiles linked the association between unhealthy dietary patterns and ADHD. In conclusion, an unhealthy dietary pattern may be a predecessor of the poor nutritional biochemistry status, and managing diet and nutrition conditions should be considered to improve ADHD symptoms in children. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD; diet; nutritional biochemistry; fatty acid profile; vitamin; mineral ADHD; diet; nutritional biochemistry; fatty acid profile; vitamin; mineral
Show Figures

Figure 1

  • Supplementary File 1:

    PDF-Document (PDF, 231 KB)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: Nil
    Link: http://Nil
    Description: Supplementary Table 1 Food preference between children with ADHD and healthy control children Supplementary Table 2 The relationship between ADHD, the dietary factors and the nutritional biochemistry factors
MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.-J.; Yu, Y.-H.; Fu, M.-L.; Yeh, W.-T.; Hsu, J.-L.; Yang, Y.-H.; Yang, H.-T.; Huang, S.-Y.; Wei, I.-L.; Chen, W.J.; Chiang, B.-L.; Pan, W.-H. Dietary Profiles, Nutritional Biochemistry Status, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Path Analysis for a Case-Control Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 709.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop