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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Profiles, Nutritional Biochemistry Status, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Path Analysis for a Case-Control Study

1
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
2
Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
3
Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan 71703, Taiwan
4
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
5
Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center and College of Medicine, Neuroscience Research Center, Chang-Gung University, Linkou, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan
6
Graduate Institute of Mind, Brain, and Consciousness, Taipei Medical University, Taipei and Brain and Consciousness Research Center, TMU Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City 11031, Taiwan
7
Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
8
Department of Food Safety, Taipei Medical University, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
9
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
10
School of Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
11
Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050709
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 May 2019 / Published: 18 May 2019
This study aims to investigate dietary and nutritional biochemistry profiles of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to explore their potential relationship by path analysis. We enrolled 216 children with ADHD and 216 age-, height- and gender-matched controls from 31 elementary schools in Taiwan. Dietary intake of the participants was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Fasting blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of multiple nutritional markers. Moreover, we employed a structural equation model (SEM) to link diet, nutritional markers and ADHD. Compared to healthy control, ADHD children had significantly lower serum levels of vitamin B12, folate, vitamin B6, ferritin concentration, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), but higher levels of serum saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, and inorganic phosphorous concentration. Children with ADHD had more intake of nutrient-poor foods such as high sugar and high fat foods, and had less intake of vegetable, fruit, protein-rich foods than their counterpart. SEM analysis showed that the poor nutritional biochemistry profiles linked the association between unhealthy dietary patterns and ADHD. In conclusion, an unhealthy dietary pattern may be a predecessor of the poor nutritional biochemistry status, and managing diet and nutrition conditions should be considered to improve ADHD symptoms in children. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD; diet; nutritional biochemistry; fatty acid profile; vitamin; mineral ADHD; diet; nutritional biochemistry; fatty acid profile; vitamin; mineral
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    Description: Supplementary Table 1 Food preference between children with ADHD and healthy control children Supplementary Table 2 The relationship between ADHD, the dietary factors and the nutritional biochemistry factors
MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.-J.; Yu, Y.-H.; Fu, M.-L.; Yeh, W.-T.; Hsu, J.-L.; Yang, Y.-H.; Yang, H.-T.; Huang, S.-Y.; Wei, I.-L.; Chen, W.J.; Chiang, B.-L.; Pan, W.-H. Dietary Profiles, Nutritional Biochemistry Status, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Path Analysis for a Case-Control Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 709.

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