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J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(4), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040489

Higher Serum Testosterone Levels Associated with Favorable Prognosis in Enzalutamide- and Abiraterone-Treated Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

1
Department of Urology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
2
Department of Urology, Yokohama Rosai Hospital, Yokohama 222-0036, Japan
3
Department of Urology, Asahi Central Hospital, Aashi 289-2511, Japan
4
Department of Urology, Japan Community Healthcare Organization Tokyo Shinjuku Medical Center, Shinjyuku 162-8543, Japan
5
Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Ube 755-0046, Japan
6
Department of Urology, Funabashi Medical Center, Funabashi 273-8588, Japan
7
Department of Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disease, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-0914, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract

Testosterone plays a significant role in maintaining the tumor microenvironment. The role of the target serum testosterone (TST) level in enzalutamide- (Enza) and abiraterone (Abi)-treated castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients was studied. In total, 107 patients treated with Enza and/or Abi at Chiba University Hospital and affiliated hospitals were studied. The relationships between progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and clinical factors were studied by Cox proportional hazard and Kaplan–Meier models. In the Abi and Enza groups overall, TST ≥ 13 ng/dL (median) (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.43, p = 0.0032) remained an independent prognostic factor for PFS. In the Enza group, TST ≥ 13 ng/dL (median) was found to be a significant prognostic factor (HR 0.28, p = 0.0044), while, in the Abi group, TST ≥ 12 ng/dL (median) was not significant (HR 0.40, p = 0.0891). TST showed significant correlation with PFS periods (r = 0. 32, p = 0.0067), whereas, for OS, TST ≥ 13 ng/dL (median) showed no significant difference in the Abi and Enza groups overall. According to Kaplan–Meier analysis, a longer PFS at first-line therapy showed a favorable prognosis in the Enza group (p = 0.0429), while no difference was observed in the Abi group (p = 0.6051). The TST level and PFS of first-line therapy may be considered when determining the treatment strategy for CRPC patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: abiraterone; enzalutamide; prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; testosterone; castration resistant prostate cancer abiraterone; enzalutamide; prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; testosterone; castration resistant prostate cancer
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Sakamoto, S.; Maimaiti, M.; Xu, M.; Kamada, S.; Yamada, Y.; Kitoh, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Takeuchi, N.; Higuchi, K.; Uchida, H.A.; Komiya, A.; Nagata, M.; Nakatsu, H.; Matsuyama, H.; Akakura, K.; Ichikawa, T. Higher Serum Testosterone Levels Associated with Favorable Prognosis in Enzalutamide- and Abiraterone-Treated Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 489.

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