Effectiveness of Creatine Supplementation on Aging Muscle and Bone: Focus on Falls Prevention and Inflammation
Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
Department of Physical Education, Brandon University, Brandon, MB R7A 6A9, Canada
College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B2, Canada
Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
Department of Health and Human Performance, Nova Southeastern University, Davie, FL 33314, USA
Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4253, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040488
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
Sarcopenia, defined as the age-related decrease in muscle mass, strength and physical performance, is associated with reduced bone mass and elevated low-grade inflammation. From a healthy aging perspective, interventions which overcome sarcopenia are clinically relevant. Accumulating evidence suggests that exogenous creatine supplementation has the potential to increase aging muscle mass, muscle performance, and decrease the risk of falls and possibly attenuate inflammation and loss of bone mineral. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to: (1) summarize the effects of creatine supplementation, with and without resistance training, in aging adults and discuss possible mechanisms of action, (2) examine the effects of creatine on bone biology and risk of falls, (3) evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of creatine and (4) determine the safety of creatine supplementation in aging adults.