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J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(4), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040464

Diameters of Arteries Supplying Horseshoe Kidneys and the Level They Branch off Their Parental Vessels: A CT-Angiographic Study

1
Department of Radiology, Barlicki University Hospital, Medical University of Łódź, Kopcińskiego Str. 22, 90-153 Łódź, Poland
2
Department of Radiological and Isotopic Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University of Łódź, ul. Pomorska 251, 92-213 Łódź, Poland
3
Department of Angiology, Interfaculty Chair of Anatomy and Histology, Medical University of Łódź, Żeligowskiego 7/9, 90-752 Łódź, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Nuclear Medicine & Radiology)
PDF [613 KB, uploaded 5 April 2019]

Abstract

Background: The most common renal fusion anomaly is horseshoe kidney (HSK), a condition associated with variable arterial blood supply. The aim of this study was to determine whether the height of origin of the renal artery determines its diameter and whether it differs from the mean diameter of the renal arteries of normal kidneys (NK). Methods: Computer tomography angiography (CTA) studies of 336 patients (88 HSK and 248 NK) were obtained in a search of renal arteries; these were than classified into four groups according to height of its origin: Group I, branching from the aorta superior to the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA); Group II, branching from the aorta below the IMA; Group III, branching from the iliac artery; and Group IV, originating from the internal and external iliac artery. Results: The HSK group included 398 arteries (mean diameter 4.30 mm) and the NK group 598 (5.52 mm) (p < 0.0001). In the HSK group, the mean diameters according to groups were: Group I, 4.54 mm; Group II, 4.28 mm; Group III, 3.41 mm; and Group IV, 3.43 mm. Statistically significant differences were found between arteries originating from the aorta and arteries branching from the iliac arteries (p < 0.0001). In the NK group, the corresponding values were: Group I, 5.53 mm; and Group II, 4.45 mm. The number of arteries supplying the HSK wider than 3.0 mm were: Group I, 83.0%; Group II, 82.4%; Group III, 68.4%; and Group IV, 66.6%. Conclusions: The renal arteries of the HSK branch from their parental vessels at lower levels and have smaller diameters than those of NK.
Keywords: renal artery; multiple renal arteries; horseshoe kidney; computed tomography angiography renal artery; multiple renal arteries; horseshoe kidney; computed tomography angiography
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Majos, M.; Majos, A.; Polguj, M.; Szymczyk, K.; Chrostowski, J.; Stefańczyk, L. Diameters of Arteries Supplying Horseshoe Kidneys and the Level They Branch off Their Parental Vessels: A CT-Angiographic Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 464.

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