Androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a significant driver of prostate cancer progression, therefore androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is often used as a standard form of treatment for advanced and metastatic prostate cancer patients. However, after several years of ADT, prostate cancer progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen/AR signaling is still considered an important factor for prostate cancer cell survival following CRPC progression, while recent studies have reported dichotomic roles for androgen/AR signaling. Androgen/AR signaling increases prostate cancer cell proliferation, while simultaneously inhibiting migration. As a result, ADT can induce prostate cancer metastasis. Several C-C motif ligand (CCL)-receptor (CCR) axes are involved in cancer cell migration related to blockade of androgen/AR signaling. The CCL2-CCR2 axis is negatively regulated by androgen/AR signaling, with the CCL22-CCR4 axis acting as a further downstream mediator, both of which promote prostate cancer cell migration. Furthermore, the CCL5-CCR5 axis inhibits androgen/AR signaling as an upstream mediator. CCL4 is involved in prostate carcinogenesis through macrophage AR signaling, while the CCL21-CCR7 axis in prostate cancer cells is activated by tumor necrotic factor, which is secreted when androgen/AR signaling is inhibited. Finally, the CCL2-CCR2 axis has recently been demonstrated to be a key contributor to cabazitaxel resistance in CRPC.
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