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J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020201

Obesity, Inflammation, and Prostate Cancer

Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
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Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract

The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the world, and obesity-induced disease, insulin-resistance, cardiovascular disease, and malignancies are becoming a problem. Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with advanced prostate cancer and that obese men with prostate cancer have a poorer prognosis. Obesity induces systemic inflammation via several mechanisms. High-fat diet-induced prostate cancer progresses via adipose-secretory cytokines or chemokines. Inflammatory cells play important roles in tumor progression. A high-fat diet or obesity changes the local profile of immune cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and macrophages, in prostate cancer. Tumor-associated neutrophils, B cells, and complements may promote prostate cancer in the background of obesity. Interventions to control systemic and/or local inflammation and changes in lifestyle may also be viable therapies for prostate cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; inflammation; prostate cancer; immune cells; cytokine; high-fat diet obesity; inflammation; prostate cancer; immune cells; cytokine; high-fat diet
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Fujita, K.; Hayashi, T.; Matsushita, M.; Uemura, M.; Nonomura, N. Obesity, Inflammation, and Prostate Cancer. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 201.

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