The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the world, and obesity-induced disease, insulin-resistance, cardiovascular disease, and malignancies are becoming a problem. Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with advanced prostate cancer and that obese men with prostate cancer have a poorer prognosis. Obesity induces systemic inflammation via several mechanisms. High-fat diet-induced prostate cancer progresses via adipose-secretory cytokines or chemokines. Inflammatory cells play important roles in tumor progression. A high-fat diet or obesity changes the local profile of immune cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and macrophages, in prostate cancer. Tumor-associated neutrophils, B cells, and complements may promote prostate cancer in the background of obesity. Interventions to control systemic and/or local inflammation and changes in lifestyle may also be viable therapies for prostate cancer.
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