Next Article in Journal
Interventions to Promote Patient Utilization of Cardiac Rehabilitation: Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Moscatilin Inhibits Growth of Human Esophageal Cancer Xenograft and Sensitizes Cancer Cells to Radiotherapy
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020188

CHADS2, CHA2DS2ASc, and New ABCD Scores Predict the Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Sleep Apnea

1,2
,
1,3,4
,
1,3,4
,
1,5,6,7
,
1,5,6,7
,
1,2,5,6
,
3,5,8
,
3,8
and
1,3,5,6,7,*
1
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Sleep Disorders Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
5
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
6
Department of Respiratory Care, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
7
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
8
Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Neuroscience)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2958 KB, uploaded 17 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

The association between sleep apnea (SA) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) remains debatable, and there is no clinical tool to predict incident PAD in SA patients. The CHADS2 score has been found useful in predicting PAD risk. This study was designed to investigate the association between these diseases and the usefulness of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2ASc scores in predicting subsequent PAD in SA patients. From a population-based database of one-million representative subjects, adult patients with SA diagnosis were enrolled as the suspected SA group, and those having SA diagnosis after polysomnography were further extracted as the probable SA group. Twenty sex- and age-matched control subjects were randomly selected for each SA patients. The occurrence of PAD after SA was taken as the primary endpoint. Totally, 10,702 and 4242 patients were enrolled in the suspected and probable SA groups, respectively. The cumulative incidence of PAD was similar between SA patients and the corresponding control groups. Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed that SA was not an independent risk factor for subsequent PAD. Sensitivity analyses using propensity score-matched cohorts showed consistent results. Furthermore, in stratifying the SA patients by CHADS2, CHA2DS2ASc, or a newly-proposed ABCD (composed of Age, high Blood pressure, Cerebral vascular disease, and Diabetes mellitus) score, patients with higher scores predicted higher risks of subsequent PAD, while the ABCD score appeared to be the most robust. Aggressive risk modification is suggested to reduce the subsequent PAD risk in SA patients with a higher CHADS2, CHA2DS2ASc, or ABCD score. View Full-Text
Keywords: CHADS2 score; CHA2DS2-VASc score; sleep apnea; peripheral artery disease; sleep disordered breathing CHADS2 score; CHA2DS2-VASc score; sleep apnea; peripheral artery disease; sleep disordered breathing
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, K.-L.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Tsai, Y.-C.; Hung, J.-Y.; Sheu, C.-C.; Yang, C.-J.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Wu, M.-N.; Tsai, M.-J. CHADS2, CHA2DS2ASc, and New ABCD Scores Predict the Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Sleep Apnea. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 188.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top