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Open AccessArticle

PrimeStore MTM and OMNIgene Sputum for the Preservation of Sputum for Xpert MTB/RIF Testing in Nigeria

Zankli Research Centre and Department of Community Medicine, Bingham University, Karu 961105, Nigeria
Zankli Medical Center, Abuja 961105, Nigeria
Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9TF, UK
Stop TB Partnership, TB REACH, 1218 Geneva, Switzerland
Institut d'Investigació Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), 08916 Badalona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2146;
Received: 11 November 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 1 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis: Clinical Applications in the Diagnosis and Treatment)
Background: Xpert MTB/RIF (GX) for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis is often located in reference laboratories, and sputum needs to be transported using a cold chain. Transport media to preserve sputum are available, but performance data under programmatic conditions are limited. Methods: Sputum samples were collected from patients with presumptive TB in Nigeria. One sputum was transported in a cold chain, tested immediately with GX and cultured. One sputum was swabbed and stored in PrimeStore-Molecular-Transport-Medium (Primestore), and the remainder was stored in OMNIGene-sputum (Omnigene), kept for seven days and tested with GX. Results: Of 248 patients, 63 were fresh-sputum culture-positive and 56 GX-positive (sensitivity 88.9%, 95% CI: 78.4–95.4%). Four of 185 culture-negative patients were GX-positive (specificity 97.8%, 94.6–99.4%). Omnigene GX and Primestore GX were positive in 56/62 (90.3%, 80.1–96.4%) and 49/62 (79.0%, 66.8–88.3%) culture-positive, respectively, and 1/185 (99.5%, 97.0–100.0%) and 3/185 (98.4%, 95.3–99.7%) were culture-negative patients. 14 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected and 44 HIV-uninfected patients were culture-positive. Omnigene and Primestore detected 12/14 (85.7%, 57.2–98.2%) and 5/14 (35.7%, 12.8–64.9%) HIV-infected and 41/44 (93.2%, 81.3–98.6%) HIV-uninfected culture-positive patients. Interpretation: Omnigene stored and fresh sputum samples had similar GX results. The GX results of Primestore-stored samples were similar to those found in the fresh sputum of non-HIV infected patients, but GX-positivity was lower in HIV-infected patients. This was likely due to the lower amount of bacilli collected by the swab and transferred to PrimeStore.
Keywords: tuberculosis; diagnosis; OMNIGene-sputum; PrimeStore; Xpert MTB/RIF tuberculosis; diagnosis; OMNIGene-sputum; PrimeStore; Xpert MTB/RIF
MDPI and ACS Style

Bimba, J.S.; Lawson, L.; Kontogianni, K.; Edwards, T.; Ekpenyong, B.E.; Dodd, J.; Adams, E.R.; Sloan, D.J.; Creswell, J.; Dominguez, J.; Cuevas, L.E. PrimeStore MTM and OMNIgene Sputum for the Preservation of Sputum for Xpert MTB/RIF Testing in Nigeria. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 2146.

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