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Open AccessArticle

Ankle Brachial Index in Different Types of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Case Reports

University of Naples Federico II, Department of Public Health, Human Anatomy and Sports Medicine Division, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
F.D.M. and D.N. contributed equally to this work and are joint senior authors.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122071
Received: 27 October 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 22 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Vascular Medicine)
Similar to other peripheral artery diseases, vessel narrowing in popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) reduces the ankle brachial index (ABI). Since the PAES is related to several anatomical or functional variations, we sought to determine if the ABI was correlated with the type of syndrome. Through a systematic review of literature, we identified case reports and series in which the diagnosis of PAES was accompanied by ABI measurement. Twenty-seven studies included in the qualitative synthesis described 87 limbs. The most common types of the syndrome were those caused by an abnormal medial head of the gastrocnemius (type II, n = 35, 40.23%) and aberrant course of the popliteal artery (type I, n = 20, 22.99%). The variation of plantaris muscle (n = 7, 8.05%) is currently not included in the classification system. The median value of ABI was 0.87 (interquartile range (IQR) = 0.6–1.0). There were no differences among types of syndrome (F = 0.13, p = 0.72). In conclusion, despite clinical recommendations, the ABI remains underused in PAES diagnosis. No correlation was detected between the index score and type of syndrome. The cases of PAES involving structures other than the gastrocnemius or popliteus muscle suggest the need to revisit the current clinical classification system. View Full-Text
Keywords: popliteal artery; ankle brachial index; peripheral artery disease; variation; skeletal muscle popliteal artery; ankle brachial index; peripheral artery disease; variation; skeletal muscle
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Sirico, F.; Palermi, S.; Gambardella, F.; Capuano, E.; Ferrari, U.; Baioccato, V.; Castaldo, C.; Di Meglio, F.; Nurzynska, D. Ankle Brachial Index in Different Types of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Case Reports. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 2071.

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