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Open AccessArticle

Conditional Controlled Light/Dark Cycle Influences Exercise-Induced Benefits in a Rat Model with Osteoarthritis: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

by Yunkyung Hong 1,2,3, Seunghoon Lee 1,2,3, Jeonghyun Choi 2,3,4, Yunho Jin 2,3,4, Jinyoung Won 2,3,4, Youngjin Jo 2,3,5 and Yonggeun Hong 1,2,3,4,6,*
1
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Healthcare Medical Science & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
2
Biohealth Products Research Center (BPRC), Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
3
Ubiquitous Healthcare & Anti-aging Research Center (u-HARC), Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
4
Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
5
Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Public Health, Inje University, Busan 47392, Korea
6
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Harvard Medical School-Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111855
Received: 29 August 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 1 November 2019 / Published: 2 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedics: Medicine and Mechanisms)
Physical exercise has long been recommended as a treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), though its effects vary based on the exercise protocol. Here, we examined whether environmental lighting conditions influence the anti-inflammatory benefits of exercise in a rat model of OA. Moderate-intensity treadmill exercise (Ex) was performed for six weeks under a 12:12 h light/dark (L/D) cycle, and compared against rats housed in a 24 h continuous light (L/L) environment. L/L conditions were associated with serological changes shortly after OA induction, which exacerbated the inflammatory microenvironment in the joint. Differentiation capacity was also impaired in bone precursor cells isolated from normal rats maintained under L/L conditions, despite elevated inflammatory responses. Exercise training under L/L conditions led to increased corticosterone levels in the blood, which exacerbated the progression of cartilaginous and synovial lesions. Osteoporotic phenomena were also observed in exercise-trained rats maintained under L/L conditions, along with inflammation-induced catabolism in the gastrocnemius muscle. Aberrant light/dark cycle conditions were also found to be associated with suppression of splenic Cry1 expression in exercise-trained rats, leading to dysregulation of immune responses. Taken together, these data suggest that lighting condition may be an important environmental factor influencing the exercise-induced benefits on OA. View Full-Text
Keywords: musculoskeletal homeostasis; physical exercise; environmental lighting; inflammation musculoskeletal homeostasis; physical exercise; environmental lighting; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hong, Y.; Lee, S.; Choi, J.; Jin, Y.; Won, J.; Jo, Y.; Hong, Y. Conditional Controlled Light/Dark Cycle Influences Exercise-Induced Benefits in a Rat Model with Osteoarthritis: In Vitro and In Vivo Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1855.

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