Ovarian cancers represent the deadliest among gynecologic malignancies and are characterized by a hierarchical structure with cancer stem cells (CSCs) endowed with self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, known to regulate stemness in a broad spectrum of stem cell niches including the ovary, is thought to play an important role in ovarian cancer. Importantly, Wnt activity was shown to correlate with grade, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, chemotherapy resistance, and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. This review will discuss the current knowledge of the role of Wnt signaling in ovarian cancer stemness, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and therapy resistance. In addition, the alleged role of exosomes in the paracrine activation of Wnt signaling and pre-metastatic niche formation will be reviewed. Finally, novel potential treatment options based on Wnt inhibition will be highlighted.
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