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In Vitro Study of Multi-Therapeutic Properties of Thymus bovei Benth. Essential Oil and Its Main Component for Promoting Their Use in Clinical Practice

Department of Natural Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého tř. 1946/1, Brno 612 42, Czech Republic
Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
Museum of literature in Moravia, Klášter 1, 664 61, Rajhrad, Czech Republic
REEF Environmental Consultancy Services, #2 Kamaraj Street, S.P. Nagar, Puducherry 605 001, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(9), 283;
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacology)
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Thymus bovei Benth. (TB) is an important plant in the traditional medicine of the Mediterranean region. This study investigates the health-promoting properties of TB essential oil (TB-EO) for its possible use in clinical practice with regards to its cytotoxic, anti-herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and antihypertensive (through inhibition of human angiotensin-converting enzyme; ACE) properties. The phytochemical profile of EO (99.9%) was analyzed by Gas Chromatography with Flame-Ionization Detection (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, all biological methods were performed at the level of in vitro studies. The results showed that TB-EO exerted remarked cytotoxic properties against human cervical carcinoma cells, colon cancer cells, and lung adenocarcinoma cells with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 7.22, 9.30, and 8.62 µg/mL, respectively, in comparison with that of standard anticancer drug cisplatin with IC50 values of 4.24, 5.21, and 5.43 µg/mL, respectively. Fascinatingly, TB-EO showed very weak cytotoxicity on the healthy human fetal lung fibroblast cells with an IC50 value of 118.34 µg/mL compared with that of cisplatin (IC50 = 10.08 µg/mL). TB-EO, its main component geraniol, TB-EO combined with acyclovir (ACV) along with standard ACV, have displayed pronounced inhibitory properties against the replication of HSV-2 with the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 2.13, 1.92, 0.81 and 1.94 µg/mL, respectively, with corresponding selectivity indices (SI) 98.59, 109.38, 259.26 and 108.25, respectively. TB-EO and geraniol at a concentration of 15 µg/mL showed prominent inhibitory activities against ACE with % of inhibition 95.4% and 92.2%, respectively, compared with that of standard inhibitor captopril (99.8%; 15 µg/mL). Molecular docking studies were performed to unveil the mechanism of action of geraniol as well as structural parameters necessary for anti-HSV-2 activity (through the inhibition of HSV-2 protease) and ACE inhibition. This is the first report on the chemical composition of Egyptian TB-EO along with the above-mentioned biological activities. Our results may be considered as novel findings in the course of a search for new and active anticancer, anti-HSV-2 and antihypertensive agents, and expand the medicinal value of this plant and its phytochemicals in clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: anticancer; antihypertensive; HSV-2; Thymus bovei Benth.; essential oil; phytochemical profile anticancer; antihypertensive; HSV-2; Thymus bovei Benth.; essential oil; phytochemical profile

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Hassan, S.T.S.; Berchová-Bímová, K.; Šudomová, M.; Malaník, M.; Šmejkal, K.; Rengasamy, K.R. In Vitro Study of Multi-Therapeutic Properties of Thymus bovei Benth. Essential Oil and Its Main Component for Promoting Their Use in Clinical Practice. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 283.

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