Diabetes in pregnancy, both preexisting type 1 or type 2 and gestational diabetes, is a highly prevalent condition, which has a great impact on maternal and fetal health, with short and long-term implications. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a condition triggered by metabolic adaptation, which occurs during the second half of pregnancy. There is still a lot of controversy about GDM, from classification and diagnosis to treatment. Recently, there have been some advances in the field as well as recommendations from international societies, such as how to distinguish previous diabetes, even if first recognized during pregnancy, and newer diagnostic criteria, based on pregnancy outcomes, instead of maternal risk of future diabetes. These new recommendations will lead to a higher prevalence of GDM, and important issues are yet to be resolved, such as the cost-utility of this increase in diagnoses as well as the determinants for poor outcomes. The aim of this review is to discuss the advances in diagnosis and classification of GDM, as well as their implications in the field, the issue of hyperglycemia in early pregnancy and the role of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) during pregnancy. We have looked into the determinants of the poor outcomes predicted by the diagnosis by way of oral glucose tolerance tests, highlighting the relevance of continuous glucose monitoring tools, as well as other possible pathogenetic factors related to poor pregnancy outcomes.
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