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Open AccessArticle

Upper Normal Serum Creatinine Concentrations as a Predictor for Chronic Kidney Disease: Analysis of 14 Years’ Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University, College of Medicine, Incheon 22332, Korea
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J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(11), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110463
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract

Both serum creatinine (sCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been used to assess kidney function in public health check-ups. However, when the sCr is within the normal levels but the eGFR is <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, a dilemma arises, as the patients might progress to chronic kidney disease (CKD) after several years. We aimed to evaluate the association between normal sCr and the risk of incident CKD in the general population. For this, 9445 subjects from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, with normal sCr and eGFR of >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were analyzed. The subjects were classified into quartiles based on sCr levels. The primary outcome was the development of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 on two consecutive measures. During a mean follow-up of 8.4 ± 4.3 years, 779 (8.2%) subjects developed eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The incidence of the development of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was higher in the higher quartiles than in the lowest quartile. In multivariable Cox analysis, the highest quartile was associated with an increased risk for the development of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (hazard ratio (HR), 4.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.29–6.74 in females; HR, 12.77; 95% CI, 7.69–21.23 in males). In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, adding sCr to the traditional risk factors for CKD improved the accuracy of predicting the development of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (area under the curve, 0.83 vs. 0.80 in females and 0.85 vs. 0.78 in males), and the cutoff value of sCr was 0.75 mg/dL and 0.78 mg/dL in females and males. Cautious interpretation is necessary when sCr is within the normal range, considering that the upper normal range of sCr has a higher risk of CKD development. View Full-Text
Keywords: serum creatinine; estimated glomerular filtration rate; chronic kidney disease; proteinuria serum creatinine; estimated glomerular filtration rate; chronic kidney disease; proteinuria
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Jhee, J.H.; Hwang, S.D.; Song, J.H.; Lee, S.W. Upper Normal Serum Creatinine Concentrations as a Predictor for Chronic Kidney Disease: Analysis of 14 Years’ Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 463.

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