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Article

Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

1
Division of Medical and Exercise Science, School of Medicine, Faculty of Science Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522, Australia
2
Centre of Cardiovascular Research & Education in Therapeutics, School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne VIC 3004, Australia
3
Centre for Human and Applied Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Science Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lindsay Brown, Bernhard Rauch and Hemant Poudyal
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5030032
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease)
Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA); sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA); or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF) enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA); fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase). Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85) in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA), r2 = 0.583) across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish oil; preconditioning; antioxidant; reactive oxygen species; ischaemia; reperfusion; n-3 PUFA; lipid oxidation; infarct fish oil; preconditioning; antioxidant; reactive oxygen species; ischaemia; reperfusion; n-3 PUFA; lipid oxidation; infarct
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdukeyum, G.G.; Owen, A.J.; Larkin, T.A.; McLennan, P.L. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5030032

AMA Style

Abdukeyum GG, Owen AJ, Larkin TA, McLennan PL. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2016; 5(3):32. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5030032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdukeyum, Grace G., Alice J. Owen, Theresa A. Larkin, and Peter L. McLennan. 2016. "Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat" Journal of Clinical Medicine 5, no. 3: 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5030032

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