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Diaphragm Dysfunction: Diagnostic Approaches and Management Strategies

Département de Médecine, Service de Pneumologie, Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu du Centre Hospitalier de I’Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montréal, QC H2W 1T8, Canada
AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles Foix, Service de Pneumologie et Réanimation Médicale (Département “R3S”), F-75013 Paris, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Barnes
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(12), 113;
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Respiratory Diseases)
The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle, and its dysfunction can lead to significant adverse clinical consequences. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians with an overview of the main causes of uni- and bi-lateral diaphragm dysfunction, explore the clinical and physiological consequences of the disease on lung function, exercise physiology and sleep and review the available diagnostic tools used in the evaluation of diaphragm function. A particular emphasis is placed on the clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in the intensive care unit setting and the use of ultrasound to evaluate diaphragmatic action. View Full-Text
Keywords: diaphragm; diaphragm dysfunction; phrenic nerve stimulation; diaphragm ultrasound diaphragm; diaphragm dysfunction; phrenic nerve stimulation; diaphragm ultrasound
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dubé, B.-P.; Dres, M. Diaphragm Dysfunction: Diagnostic Approaches and Management Strategies. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 113.

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