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Stem Cells on Biomaterials for Synthetic Grafts to Promote Vascular Healing

1
Department of Natural Science, Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Science, Von-Liebig-Street 20, Rheinbach 53359, Germany
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering/Process Engineering, University of Applied Science Dresden, Friedrich-List-Platz 1, Dresden 01069, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3(1), 39-87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm3010039
Received: 6 October 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 November 2013 / Published: 15 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Stem Cell Treatments)
This review is divided into two interconnected parts, namely a biological and a chemical one. The focus of the first part is on the biological background for constructing tissue-engineered vascular grafts to promote vascular healing. Various cell types, such as embryonic, mesenchymal and induced pluripotent stem cells, progenitor cells and endothelial- and smooth muscle cells will be discussed with respect to their specific markers. The in vitro and in vivo models and their potential to treat vascular diseases are also introduced. The chemical part focuses on strategies using either artificial or natural polymers for scaffold fabrication, including decellularized cardiovascular tissue. An overview will be given on scaffold fabrication including conventional methods and nanotechnologies. Special attention is given to 3D network formation via different chemical and physical cross-linking methods. In particular, electron beam treatment is introduced as a method to combine 3D network formation and surface modification. The review includes recently published scientific data and patents which have been registered within the last decade. View Full-Text
Keywords: stem cell; blood vessel; endothelial cell; smooth muscle cell; biomaterial; biopolymer; collagen; scaffold; surface modification; cross-linking stem cell; blood vessel; endothelial cell; smooth muscle cell; biomaterial; biopolymer; collagen; scaffold; surface modification; cross-linking
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Babczyk, P.; Conzendorf, C.; Klose, J.; Schulze, M.; Harre, K.; Tobiasch, E. Stem Cells on Biomaterials for Synthetic Grafts to Promote Vascular Healing. J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3, 39-87.

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