Increased usage of recreational and medically indicated cannabinoid compounds has been an undeniable reality for anesthesiologists in recent years. These compounds’ complicated pharmacology, composition, and biological effects result in challenging issues for anesthesiologists during different phases of perioperative care. Here, we review the existing formulation of cannabinoids and their biological activity to put them into the context of the anesthesia plan execution. Perioperative considerations should include a way to gauge the patient’s intake of cannabinoids, the ability to gain consent properly, and vigilance to the increased risk of pulmonary and airway problems. Intraoperative management in individuals with cannabinoid use is complicated by the effects cannabinoids have on general anesthetics and depth of anesthesia monitoring while simultaneously increasing the potential occurrence of intraoperative hemodynamic instability. Postoperative planning should involve higher vigilance to the risk of postoperative strokes and acute coronary syndromes. However, most of the data are not up to date, rending definite conclusions on the importance of perioperative cannabinoid intake on anesthesia management difficult.
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