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Article

Right Cortical Infarction and a Reduction in Putamen Volume May Be Correlated with Empathy in Patients after Subacute Ischemic Stroke—A Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

1
Department of Neurology, Dongguan People’s Hospital (Affiliated Dongguan Hospital, Southern Medical University), Dongguan 523108, China
2
Faculty of Neurology, Graduate School of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang 524013, China
3
Faculty of Neurology, Graduate School of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510505, China
4
Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
5
BrainNow Research Institute, Shenzhen 518000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Laurent Suissa, Anthony Faivre and Maria A. Rocca
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(15), 4479; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154479
Received: 8 June 2022 / Revised: 12 July 2022 / Accepted: 28 July 2022 / Published: 31 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Clinical Management of Ischemic Stroke)
Empathy has not been well studied in patients following ischemic stroke. We aimed to evaluate the relationships of multimodal neuroimaging parameters with the impairment of empathy in patients who had experienced subacute ischemic stroke. Patients who had experienced a first-event acute ischemic stroke were recruited, and we assessed their empathy using the Chinese version of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) 3 months after the index stroke. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in all the participants to identify acute infarction and assess brain volumes, white matter integrity, and other preexisting abnormalities. We quantified the brain volumes of various subcortical structures, the ventricles, and cortical lobar atrophy. The microstructural integrity of the white matter was reflected in the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), and the regional mean values of FA and MD were quantified after mapping using the ICBM_DTI_81 Atlas. Twenty-three (56.1%) men and 18 (43.9%) women (mean age: 61.73 years, range: 41–77 years) were included. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at discharge was 1 (range: 0–4). On univariate analysis, the EQ was correlated with right cortical infarction (r = −0.39, p = 0.012), putamen volume (r = 0.382, p = 0.014), right putamen volume (r = 0.338, p = 0.031), and the FA value of the right sagittal stratum. EQ did not correlated with the MD value in any region of interest or pre-existing brain abnormalities. Multiple stepwise linear regression models were used to identify factors associated with EQ. After adjusting for age and the NIHSS score on admission, the frequency of right cortical infarcts negatively correlated with EQ (standardized β = −0.358, 95% confidence interval =−0.708 to −0.076, p = 0.016), and the putamen volume positively correlated with EQ (standardized β = 0.328, 95% confidence interval =0.044 to 0.676, p = 0.027). In conclusion, in patients who have experienced subacute ischemic stroke, right cortical infarction and a smaller putamen volume are associated with the impairment of empathy. View Full-Text
Keywords: subacute ischemic stroke; multimodal magnetic resonance imaging; brain structure volumetry; white matter integrity; empathy subacute ischemic stroke; multimodal magnetic resonance imaging; brain structure volumetry; white matter integrity; empathy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qu, J.-F.; Zhou, Y.-Q.; Liu, J.-F.; Hu, H.-H.; Cheng, W.-Y.; Lu, Z.-H.; Shi, L.; Luo, Y.-S.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Y.-K. Right Cortical Infarction and a Reduction in Putamen Volume May Be Correlated with Empathy in Patients after Subacute Ischemic Stroke—A Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 4479. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154479

AMA Style

Qu J-F, Zhou Y-Q, Liu J-F, Hu H-H, Cheng W-Y, Lu Z-H, Shi L, Luo Y-S, Zhao L, Chen Y-K. Right Cortical Infarction and a Reduction in Putamen Volume May Be Correlated with Empathy in Patients after Subacute Ischemic Stroke—A Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(15):4479. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154479

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qu, Jian-Feng, Yue-Qiong Zhou, Jian-Fei Liu, Hui-Hong Hu, Wei-Yang Cheng, Zhi-Hao Lu, Lin Shi, Yi-Shan Luo, Lei Zhao, and Yang-Kun Chen. 2022. "Right Cortical Infarction and a Reduction in Putamen Volume May Be Correlated with Empathy in Patients after Subacute Ischemic Stroke—A Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 15: 4479. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154479

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