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Article

Heart Rate in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Prevalence of High Values at Discharge and Relationship with Disease Severity

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Cardiology 4, “A.De Gasperis” Cardio Center, ASST GOM Niguarda Cà Granda, 20162 Milan, Italy
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School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy
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Rheumatology, Multispecialist Medical Department, ASST GOM Niguarda Ca’ Granda, 20162 Milan, Italy
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Bicocca Bioinformatics, Biostatistics and Bioimaging Centre—B4, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy
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Cardiology 2, “A.De Gasperis” Cardio Center, ASST GOM Niguarda Ca’ Granda, 20162 Milan, Italy
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Territorial Cardiology “A.De Gasperis” Cardio Center, ASST GOM Niguarda Ca’ Granda, 20162 Milan, Italy
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Nuclear Medicine, ASST GOM Niguarda Ca’ Granda, 20162 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Alessandro Maloberti and Nicola Ughi share the first authorship.
Membership of the Niguarda COVID-19 Working Group is provided in the Acknowledgments.
Academic Editor: Vito Racanelli
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(23), 5590; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235590
Received: 15 November 2021 / Revised: 25 November 2021 / Accepted: 26 November 2021 / Published: 28 November 2021
The most common arrhythmia associated with COronaVIrus-related Disease (COVID) infection is sinus tachycardia. It is not known if high Heart Rate (HR) in COVID is simply a marker of higher systemic response to sepsis or if its persistence could be related to a long-term autonomic dysfunction. The aim of our work is to assess the prevalence of elevated HR at discharge in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and to evaluate the variables associated with it. We enrolled 697 cases of SARS-CoV2 infection admitted in our hospital after February 21 and discharged within 23 July 2020. We collected data on clinical history, vital signs, laboratory tests and pharmacological treatment. Severe disease was defined as the need for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and/or mechanical ventilation. Median age was 59 years (first-third quartile 49, 74), and male was the prevalent gender (60.1%). 84.6% of the subjects showed a SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia, and 13.2% resulted in a severe disease. Mean HR at admission was 90 ± 18 bpm with a mean decrease of 10 bpm to discharge. Only 5.5% of subjects presented HR > 100 bpm at discharge. Significant predictors of discharge HR at multiple linear model were admission HR (mean increase = β = 0.17 per bpm, 95% CI 0.11; 0.22, p < 0.001), haemoglobin (β = −0.64 per g/dL, 95% CI −1.19; −0.09, p = 0.023) and severe disease (β = 8.42, 95% CI 5.39; 11.45, p < 0.001). High HR at discharge in COVID-19 patients is not such a frequent consequence, but when it occurs it seems strongly related to a severe course of the disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart rate; SARS-CoV-2; infection severity; COVID-19 heart rate; SARS-CoV-2; infection severity; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maloberti, A.; Ughi, N.; Bernasconi, D.P.; Rebora, P.; Cartella, I.; Grasso, E.; Lenoci, D.; Del Gaudio, F.; Algeri, M.; Scarpellini, S.; Perna, E.; Verde, A.; Santolamazza, C.; Vicari, F.; Frigerio, M.; Alberti, A.; Valsecchi, M.G.; Rossetti, C.; Epis, O.M.; Giannattasio, C.; on the behalf of the Niguarda COVID-19 Working Group. Heart Rate in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Prevalence of High Values at Discharge and Relationship with Disease Severity. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 5590. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235590

AMA Style

Maloberti A, Ughi N, Bernasconi DP, Rebora P, Cartella I, Grasso E, Lenoci D, Del Gaudio F, Algeri M, Scarpellini S, Perna E, Verde A, Santolamazza C, Vicari F, Frigerio M, Alberti A, Valsecchi MG, Rossetti C, Epis OM, Giannattasio C, on the behalf of the Niguarda COVID-19 Working Group. Heart Rate in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Prevalence of High Values at Discharge and Relationship with Disease Severity. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(23):5590. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235590

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maloberti, Alessandro, Nicola Ughi, Davide P. Bernasconi, Paola Rebora, Iside Cartella, Enzo Grasso, Deborah Lenoci, Francesca Del Gaudio, Michela Algeri, Sara Scarpellini, Enrico Perna, Alessandro Verde, Caterina Santolamazza, Francesco Vicari, Maria Frigerio, Antonia Alberti, Maria G. Valsecchi, Claudio Rossetti, Oscar M. Epis, Cristina Giannattasio, and on the behalf of the Niguarda COVID-19 Working Group. 2021. "Heart Rate in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Prevalence of High Values at Discharge and Relationship with Disease Severity" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 23: 5590. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235590

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