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Review

Infection of Human Cells by SARS-CoV-2 and Molecular Overview of Gastrointestinal, Neurological, and Hepatic Problems in COVID-19 Patients

1
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran 1417614335, Iran
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Angiology and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Batorego 15 St., 41-902 Bytom, Poland
3
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom 7414785318, Iran
4
Research Center for Noncommunicable Diseases, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom 7414846199, Iran
5
Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India
6
Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow, Russia
7
Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo 11517, Egypt
8
Department of Biology, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom 7414785318, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first authorship.
Academic Editors: Dimitrios A. Vrachatis and Spyridon G. Deftereos
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(21), 4802; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214802
Received: 23 August 2021 / Revised: 12 October 2021 / Accepted: 16 October 2021 / Published: 20 October 2021
The gastrointestinal tract is the body’s largest interface between the host and the external environment. People infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at higher risk of microbiome alterations and severe diseases. Recent evidence has suggested that the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with gastrointestinal complicity in SARS-CoV-2 infection could be explained by the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) cell receptors. These receptors are overexpressed in the gut lining, leading to a high intestinal permeability to foreign pathogens. It is believed that SARS-CoV-2 has a lesser likelihood of causing liver infection because of the diminished expression of ACE2 in liver cells. Interestingly, an interconnection between the lungs, brain, and gastrointestinal tract during severe COVID-19 has been mentioned. We hope that this review on the molecular mechanisms related to the gastrointestinal disorders as well as neurological and hepatic manifestations experienced by COVID-19 patients will help scientists to find a convenient solution for this and other pandemic events. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut flora; neurological symptoms; coronavirus disease 19; angiotensin-converting enzyme-2; spike protein; hepatic derangements gut flora; neurological symptoms; coronavirus disease 19; angiotensin-converting enzyme-2; spike protein; hepatic derangements
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahban, M.; Stanek, A.; Hooshmand, A.; Khamineh, Y.; Ahi, S.; Kazim, S.N.; Ahmad, F.; Muronetz, V.; Samy Abousenna, M.; Zolghadri, S.; Saboury, A.A. Infection of Human Cells by SARS-CoV-2 and Molecular Overview of Gastrointestinal, Neurological, and Hepatic Problems in COVID-19 Patients. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 4802. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214802

AMA Style

Rahban M, Stanek A, Hooshmand A, Khamineh Y, Ahi S, Kazim SN, Ahmad F, Muronetz V, Samy Abousenna M, Zolghadri S, Saboury AA. Infection of Human Cells by SARS-CoV-2 and Molecular Overview of Gastrointestinal, Neurological, and Hepatic Problems in COVID-19 Patients. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(21):4802. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214802

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahban, Mahdie, Agata Stanek, Amirreza Hooshmand, Yasaman Khamineh, Salma Ahi, Syed N. Kazim, Faizan Ahmad, Vladimir Muronetz, Mohamed Samy Abousenna, Samaneh Zolghadri, and Ali A. Saboury. 2021. "Infection of Human Cells by SARS-CoV-2 and Molecular Overview of Gastrointestinal, Neurological, and Hepatic Problems in COVID-19 Patients" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 21: 4802. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214802

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