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Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Biomarker Expression in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

1
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia” ENT Section, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Sensory Organs, “Sapienza” University of Rome, 00100 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Head-Neck Surgery, Otolaryngology, Head-Neck and Oral Surgery Unit, Morgagni Pierantoni Hospital, 47121 Forlì, Italy
4
Department ENT and Audiology, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
5
Department of Head-Neck Surgery, Otolaryngology, Head-Neck and Oral Surgery Unit, Ospedale “Santa Maria delle Croci”, Viale Vincenzo Randi, 5, 48121 Ravenna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020277
Received: 6 December 2020 / Revised: 6 January 2021 / Accepted: 8 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is a respiratory sleep disorder characterised by repeated episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during the night. This obstruction usually occurs with a reduction (hypopnea) or complete cessation (apnea) of the airflow in the upper airways with the persistence of thoracic-diaphragmatic respiratory movements. During the hypopnea/apnea events, poor alveolar ventilation reduces the oxygen saturation in the arterial blood (SaO2) and a gradual increase in the partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The direct consequence of the intermittent hypoxia is an oxidative imbalance, with reactive oxygen species production and the inflammatory cascade’s activation with pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines growth. Tumour necrosis factors, inflammatory cytokines (IL2, IL4, IL6), lipid peroxidation, and cell-free DNA have been found to increase in OSAS patients. However, even though different risk-related markers have been described and analysed in the literature, it has not yet been clarified whether specified inflammatory bio-markers better correlates with OSAS diagnosis and its clinical evolution/comorbidities. We perform a scientific literature review to discuss inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers currently tested in OSAS patients and their correlation with the disease’s severity and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea; intermittent hypoxia; cardiovascular risk; tumour necrosis factors; lipid peroxidation; cell-free DNA obstructive sleep apnea; intermittent hypoxia; cardiovascular risk; tumour necrosis factors; lipid peroxidation; cell-free DNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maniaci, A.; Iannella, G.; Cocuzza, S.; Vicini, C.; Magliulo, G.; Ferlito, S.; Cammaroto, G.; Meccariello, G.; De Vito, A.; Nicolai, A.; Pace, A.; Artico, M.; Taurone, S. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Biomarker Expression in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 277. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020277

AMA Style

Maniaci A, Iannella G, Cocuzza S, Vicini C, Magliulo G, Ferlito S, Cammaroto G, Meccariello G, De Vito A, Nicolai A, Pace A, Artico M, Taurone S. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Biomarker Expression in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(2):277. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020277

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maniaci, Antonino, Giannicola Iannella, Salvatore Cocuzza, Claudio Vicini, Giuseppe Magliulo, Salvatore Ferlito, Giovanni Cammaroto, Giuseppe Meccariello, Andrea De Vito, Alice Nicolai, Annalisa Pace, Marco Artico, and Samanta Taurone. 2021. "Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Biomarker Expression in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 2: 277. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020277

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