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Obesity and Multiple Sclerosis—A Multifaceted Association
Article

Gender-Related Differences in Prodromal Multiple Sclerosis Characteristics: A 7-Year Observation Study

1
Department of Analysis and Strategy, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Poland, 00-952 Warsaw, Poland
2
Institute of Labour and Social Studies, 01-022 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Adult Neurology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland
4
SGH Warsaw School of Economics, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland
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Department of Neurology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
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Department of Neurology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
7
Department of Neurology, University Hospital in Krakow, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giulio Disanto
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(17), 3821; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173821
Received: 19 July 2021 / Revised: 19 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 26 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances in Multiple Sclerosis)
Increasing evidence supports the observation that multiple sclerosis (MS) has a preclinical period, with various prodromal signs and symptoms more frequently represented in patients with confirmed MS many years later. Considering the apparent gender differences in the incidence and clinical course of MS, it remains unclear whether it could be reflected in prodromal symptom features. This study aimed to compare a broad spectrum of prodromal signs and symptoms between males and females in the 7-year period before the definite diagnosis of MS. Data came from the central register of the national payer of services, financed under the public healthcare system in Poland. They covered a 7-year period of patient health record claims, from 2009 to 2016. The following groups of symptoms were significant with women: musculoskeletal (p < 0.001), ophthalmic (p < 0.001), laryngological (p < 0.001), digestive system (p < 0.001), urinary tract (p < 0.001), mental (p < 0.001), cardiovascular (p < 0.001), complaints and headaches (p < 0.001). There was also a weak correlation with head injuries (p = 0.03) while dermatological and reproductive system complaints did not appear to be significant (p < 0.05). For males, the following groups of symptoms were significant: musculoskeletal (p < 0.001), ophthalmic (p < 0.001), laryngological (p = 0.007), cardiovascular system symptoms (p < 0.001), and headaches (p < 0.001). Interestingly, reproductive system problems were overrepresented in the male population (p = 0.008). There was no significant correlation with MS risk for dermatological, digestive, urinary, and mental complaints. Similarly, head injuries were not significant. Our results shed more light on well-known differences in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics between sexes in multiple sclerosis, and show differences in prodromal complaints before MS onset. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; risk factors; pre-existing diseases; pre-existing conditions; Poland; administrative data multiple sclerosis; risk factors; pre-existing diseases; pre-existing conditions; Poland; administrative data
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perwieniec, J.; Podwójcic, K.; Maluchnik, M.; Szeląg, M.; Walkiewicz, D.; Zakrzewski, M.; Droździkowska, A.; Kamiński, B.; Zasybska, A.; Wnuk, M.; Słowik, A.; Rejdak, K. Gender-Related Differences in Prodromal Multiple Sclerosis Characteristics: A 7-Year Observation Study. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3821. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173821

AMA Style

Perwieniec J, Podwójcic K, Maluchnik M, Szeląg M, Walkiewicz D, Zakrzewski M, Droździkowska A, Kamiński B, Zasybska A, Wnuk M, Słowik A, Rejdak K. Gender-Related Differences in Prodromal Multiple Sclerosis Characteristics: A 7-Year Observation Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(17):3821. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173821

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perwieniec, Jakub, Krzysztof Podwójcic, Michał Maluchnik, Mateusz Szeląg, Dorota Walkiewicz, Michał Zakrzewski, Amelia Droździkowska, Bogumił Kamiński, Adriana Zasybska, Marcin Wnuk, Agnieszka Słowik, and Konrad Rejdak. 2021. "Gender-Related Differences in Prodromal Multiple Sclerosis Characteristics: A 7-Year Observation Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 17: 3821. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173821

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