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Article

Behavioral, Emotional and Social Apathy in Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders

1
Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, 5803 DN Venray, The Netherlands
2
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 6525 XZ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3
Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK
4
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK
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Tactus Addiction Care, 7418 ET Deventer, The Netherlands
6
Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arnt F. A. Schellekens
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2447; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112447
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 26 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Disorders and Clinical Psychiatry)
Apathy is a fundamental neuropsychiatric symptom of Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS) and has also been reported in patients with alcohol use disorder with no (AUD) or less severe cognitive impairments (ARCI). However, research on the nature of apathy is limited in these groups. Aim of this study was to examine the multidimensional nature of apathy in patients with KS, ARCI and AUD. Moreover, we examined differences between apathy ratings by patients and their professional caregivers, and related apathy to everyday functioning and overall cognition. Twenty-five patients with KS, 25 patients with ARCI and 23 patients with AUD participated in this study. Apathy was measured using the apathy motivation index (AMI), which distinguishes behavioral, emotional and social apathy. Both patients and professional caregivers reported social apathy as the most prominent symptom, compared to behavioral and emotional apathy. Apathy ratings did not differ across the three patient groups. Discrepancies between patient and caregiver ratings were observed in patients with KS and ARCI, with more severe apathy reported by caregivers. Caregiver-reported behavioral and social, but not emotional, apathy was related to everyday functioning. These results show that apathy is present in a substantial proportion of patients with alcohol addiction with or without cognitive impairments. View Full-Text
Keywords: apathy; neuropsychology; Korsakoff’s syndrome; alcohol use disorder; alcohol-related cognitive impairments apathy; neuropsychology; Korsakoff’s syndrome; alcohol use disorder; alcohol-related cognitive impairments
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MDPI and ACS Style

van Dorst, M.E.G.; Rensen, Y.C.M.; Husain, M.; Kessels, R.P.C. Behavioral, Emotional and Social Apathy in Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2447. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112447

AMA Style

van Dorst MEG, Rensen YCM, Husain M, Kessels RPC. Behavioral, Emotional and Social Apathy in Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(11):2447. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112447

Chicago/Turabian Style

van Dorst, Maud E.G., Yvonne C.M. Rensen, Masud Husain, and Roy P.C. Kessels 2021. "Behavioral, Emotional and Social Apathy in Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 11: 2447. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112447

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