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Open AccessArticle

A Novel Cellulose-Based Polymer for Efficient Removal of Methylene Blue

1
LAQV-REQUIMTE, NOVA School of Science and Technology, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
2
i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, NOVA School of Science and Technology, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2020, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10010013
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 28 December 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processes and Materials for a Sustainable Bioeconomy)
A novel cellulose-based cross-linked polymer, dicarboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC), has been synthesized and used for methylene blue (MB) removal. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen porosimetry, and optical microscopy were employed to characterize the structure of the cellulose-based adsorbent. The number of carboxylate groups per gram of polymer (CG) was calculated with sodium content determined by ICP-AES. Systematic equilibrium and kinetic adsorption studies were performed to assess the polymer suitability for dye removal. The effect of pH on its adsorption capacity was also studied and the equilibrium adsorption data was analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherms. At pH = 3, the adsorption isotherms followed the Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 887.6 mg/g. At pH = 6.4, the adsorption isotherms produced S-shape curves and were best fitted with the Sips model. The maximum MB uptake increased to 1354.6 mg/g. Pseudo first-order and second-order models were used to fit the kinetic data. A pseudo second-order kinetic model provided the best correlation for the adsorption of MB onto DCMC. Adsorption coupled with membrane filtration achieved 95% methylene blue removal and DCMC can be successfully regenerated and reused in consecutive experiments.
Keywords: adsorption isotherms; adsorption kinetics; dicarboxymethyl cellulose; dye removal; membrane filtration adsorption isotherms; adsorption kinetics; dicarboxymethyl cellulose; dye removal; membrane filtration
MDPI and ACS Style

Gago, D.; Chagas, R.; Ferreira, L.M.; Velizarov, S.; Coelhoso, I. A Novel Cellulose-Based Polymer for Efficient Removal of Methylene Blue. Membranes 2020, 10, 13.

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