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Microalgae in Food-Energy-Water Nexus: A Review on Progress of Forward Osmosis Applications

1
Bioprocess Enginering, Brawijaya University, Malang 65141, Indonesia
2
Environmental Engineering, Brawijaya University, Malang 65141, Indonesia
3
Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak 32610, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2019, 9(12), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9120166
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 5 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processes and Materials for a Sustainable Bioeconomy)
Nowadays the world is facing vulnerability problems related to food, energy and water demands. The challenges in those subsystems are intertwined and thus require inter-discipline approaches to address them. Bioresources offer promising solutions of the dilemma. Microalgae biomass is expected to become a superfood and a favorable energy feedstock and assist in supplying clean water and treat wastewater. Efficient mass production of microalgae, both during upstream and downstream processes, is thus a key process for providing high quality and affordable microalgae biomass. This paper covers recent progress in microalgae harvesting and dewatering by using osmotic driven membrane process, i.e., forward osmosis. Critical factors during forward osmosis process for microalgae harvesting and dewatering are discussed. Finally, perspective on further research directions and implementation scenarios of the forward osmosis are also provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgae; food-energy-water nexus; osmotic dillution; forward osmosis; membrane microalgae; food-energy-water nexus; osmotic dillution; forward osmosis; membrane
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wibisono, Y.; Agung Nugroho, W.; Akbar Devianto, L.; Adi Sulianto, A.; Roil Bilad, M. Microalgae in Food-Energy-Water Nexus: A Review on Progress of Forward Osmosis Applications. Membranes 2019, 9, 166.

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