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Immunomodulatory Potential of Tinospora cordifolia and CpG ODN (TLR21 Agonist) against the Very Virulent, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in SPF Chicks

1
Immunology Section, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India
2
Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India
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Division of Physiology and Climatology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India
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Division of Biological Standardization, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India
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ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, Uttar Pradesh, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2019, 7(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7030106
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 28 August 2019 / Accepted: 30 August 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccines against Infectious Diseases)
Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is characterized by severe immunosuppression in young chicks of 3 to 6 week age group. Although vaccines are available to prevent IBD, outbreaks of disease are still noticed in the field among vaccinated flocks. Further, the birds surviving IBD become susceptible to secondary infections caused by various viral and bacterial agents. This study assessed the immunoprophylactic potential of Cytosine-guanosinedeoxynucleotide (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and Tinospora cordifolia stem aqueous extract in the specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks, experimentally infected with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). Both of these agents (CpG ODN and herbal extract) showed significant increase in the IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-1 levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (p < 0.05) of chickens in the treatment groups following IBD infection. Further we found significant reduction in mortality rate in vvIBDV infected chicks treated with either, or in combination, compared with the birds of control group. Additionally, the adjuvant or immune enhancing potential of these two immunomodulatory agents with the commercially available IBDV vaccine was determined in chicks. The augmentation of vaccine response in terms of an enhanced antibody titer after vaccination, along with either or a combination of the two agents was noticed. The findings provide a way forward to counter the menace of IBDV in the poultry sector through use of these herbal or synthetic immunomodulatory supplements. View Full-Text
Keywords: IBDV; Tinospora cordifolia; TLR agonist; CpG ODN; immunomodulator; adjuvant IBDV; Tinospora cordifolia; TLR agonist; CpG ODN; immunomodulator; adjuvant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sachan, S.; Dhama, K.; Latheef, S.K.; Abdul Samad, H.; Mariappan, A.K.; Munuswamy, P.; Singh, R.; Singh, K.P.; Malik, Y.S.; Singh, R.K. Immunomodulatory Potential of Tinospora cordifolia and CpG ODN (TLR21 Agonist) against the Very Virulent, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in SPF Chicks. Vaccines 2019, 7, 106. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7030106

AMA Style

Sachan S, Dhama K, Latheef SK, Abdul Samad H, Mariappan AK, Munuswamy P, Singh R, Singh KP, Malik YS, Singh RK. Immunomodulatory Potential of Tinospora cordifolia and CpG ODN (TLR21 Agonist) against the Very Virulent, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in SPF Chicks. Vaccines. 2019; 7(3):106. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7030106

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sachan, Swati, Kuldeep Dhama, Shyma K. Latheef, Hari Abdul Samad, Asok Kumar Mariappan, Palanivelu Munuswamy, Rajendra Singh, Karam Pal Singh, Yashpal Singh Malik, and Raj Kumar Singh. 2019. "Immunomodulatory Potential of Tinospora cordifolia and CpG ODN (TLR21 Agonist) against the Very Virulent, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in SPF Chicks" Vaccines 7, no. 3: 106. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7030106

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