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A Reference List of Phenolic Compounds (Including Stilbenes) in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Roots, Woods, Canes, Stems, and Leaves

1
Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2
Centro de Química de Vila Real, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050398
Received: 15 April 2020 / Revised: 1 May 2020 / Accepted: 5 May 2020 / Published: 8 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics as Antioxidant Agents)
Due to their biological activities, both in plants and in humans, there is a great interest in finding natural sources of phenolic compounds or ways to artificially manipulate their levels. During the last decade, a significant amount of these compounds has been reported in the vegetative organs of the vine plant. In the roots, woods, canes, stems, and leaves, at least 183 phenolic compounds have been identified, including 78 stilbenes (23 monomers, 30 dimers, 8 trimers, 16 tetramers, and 1 hexamer), 15 hydroxycinnamic acids, 9 hydroxybenzoic acids, 17 flavan-3-ols (of which 9 are proanthocyanidins), 14 anthocyanins, 8 flavanones, 35 flavonols, 2 flavones, and 5 coumarins. There is great variability in the distribution of these chemicals along the vine plant, with leaves and stems/canes having flavonols (83.43% of total phenolic levels) and flavan-3-ols (61.63%) as their main compounds, respectively. In light of the pattern described from the same organs, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and caftaric acid are the main flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids in the leaves; the most commonly represented flavan-3-ols and flavonols in the stems and canes are catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin B1, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside. The main stilbenes (trans-ε-viniferin, trans-resveratrol, isohopeaphenol/hopeaphenol, vitisin B, and ampelopsins) accumulate primarily in the woods, followed by the roots, the canes, and the stems, whereas the leaves, which are more exposed to environmental stresses, have a low concentration of these compounds. Data provided in this review could be used as (i) a metabolomic tool for screening in targeted and untargeted analyses and (ii) a reference list in studies aimed at finding ways to induce naturally occurring polyphenols on an industrial scale for pant and human disease control. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive compounds; vegetative organs; antioxidant activity; Vitis vinifera; secondary metabolites; polyphenol database; grapevine bioactive compounds; vegetative organs; antioxidant activity; Vitis vinifera; secondary metabolites; polyphenol database; grapevine
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Goufo, P.; Singh, R.K.; Cortez, I. A Reference List of Phenolic Compounds (Including Stilbenes) in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Roots, Woods, Canes, Stems, and Leaves. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 398.

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