Winery industry by-products have a great reuse potential in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields due to their bioactive compounds. This study investigates the phytochemical profile and the bioactivity of Vitis vinifera
variety Fetească neagră tendrils extract (TE) and leaves extract (LE), intended to be used in oral hygiene products recommended in periodontal disease. The evaluation of the phenolic content was performed by colorimetric analysis. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to determine the chemical profile of the two extracts obtained from V. vinifera
. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometric methods, as well as on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) cell line. The cytocompatibility and cytoprotective effect against nicotine-induced cytotoxicity were tested, as well as the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. The TE showed higher total polyphenolic content, rich in rutin, compared to the leaves extract that displayed important amounts of isoquercitrin. The antioxidant effect was confirmed by both non-cellular and cellular tests. The cytocompatibility of the extracts was confirmed at a wide range of concentrations. The cytoprotective effect was demonstrated in HGF exposed to cytotoxic doses of nicotine; 300 µg/mL of both tested extracts decreased nicotine toxicity by approximately 20%. When challenged with E. coli
polysaccharides, in HGF cells co-exposed to TE and LE, a reduction in the release of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1β) was observed. The extracts were both able to reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines, and had notable antimicrobial effects on pathogenic bacteria associated with periodontitis.
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