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Open AccessReview

Grown to be Blue—Antioxidant Properties and Health Effects of Colored Vegetables. Part II: Leafy, Fruit, and Other Vegetables

1
Department of Plant Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
2
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos, Cyprus
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Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy
4
Department of Vegetable Crops, Agricultural Research Institute, 1516 Nicosia, Cyprus
5
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
6
Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, 38446 N. Ionia, Magnissia, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020097
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 23 January 2020
The current trend for substituting synthetic compounds with natural ones in the design and production of functional and healthy foods has increased the research interest about natural colorants. Although coloring agents from plant origin are already used in the food and beverage industry, the market and consumer demands for novel and diverse food products are increasing and new plant sources are explored. Fresh vegetables are considered a good source of such compounds, especially when considering the great color diversity that exists among the various species or even the cultivars within the same species. In the present review we aim to present the most common species of colored vegetables, focusing on leafy and fruit vegetables, as well as on vegetables where other plant parts are commercially used, with special attention to blue color. The compounds that are responsible for the uncommon colors will be also presented and their beneficial health effects and antioxidant properties will be unraveled.
Keywords: anthocyanins; antioxidants; flavonoids; fruit vegetables; functional quality; leafy vegetables; inflorescence; lettuce; natural colorants; tomato anthocyanins; antioxidants; flavonoids; fruit vegetables; functional quality; leafy vegetables; inflorescence; lettuce; natural colorants; tomato
MDPI and ACS Style

Di Gioia, F.; Tzortzakis, N.; Rouphael, Y.; Kyriacou, M.C.; Sampaio, S.L.; Ferreira, I.C.; Petropoulos, S.A. Grown to be Blue—Antioxidant Properties and Health Effects of Colored Vegetables. Part II: Leafy, Fruit, and Other Vegetables. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 97.

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