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Open AccessArticle

Phytochemical Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Plant Organs Compared to Green and Roasted Coffee Beans

The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, 4–01 Koyama-cho Minami, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
Sawai Coffee Limited, 278–6, Takenouchi danchi, Sakaiminato City, Tottori 648–0046, Japan
Tottori Institute of Industrial Technology, 2032–3, Nakano-cho, Sakaiminato-shi, Tottori 684–0041, Japan
Faculty of Soil Eco-Engineering and Plant Nutrition, Shimane University, 1060, Nishikawatsucho, Matsue 690-8504, Japan
Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4–101 Koyama-cho Minami, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 93;
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 21 January 2020 / Published: 22 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
The current study investigates the phytochemical composition of coffee plant organs and their corresponding antioxidant capacities compared to green and roasted coffee beans. HPLC analysis indicated that the investigated compounds were present in all organs except mangiferin, which was absent in roots, stems and seeds, and caffeine, which was absent in stems and roots. Total phytochemicals were highest in the green beans (GB) at 9.70 mg g−1 dry weight (DW), while roasting caused a 66% decline in the roasted beans (RB). This decline resulted more from 5–CQA and sucrose decomposition by 68% and 97%, respectively, while caffeine and trigonelline were not significantly thermally affected. Roasting increased the total phenolic content (TPC) by 20.8% which was associated with an increase of 68.8%, 47.5% and 13.4% in the antioxidant capacity (TEAC) determined by 2,2–diphenyl–1–picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), 2,2–azino bis (3–ethyl benzothiazoline–6–sulphonic acid) radical (ABTS) and Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively. Amongst the leaves, the youngest (L1) contained the highest content at 8.23 mg g−1 DW, which gradually reduced with leaf age to 5.57 mg g−1 DW in the oldest (L6). Leaves also contained the highest TPC (over 60 mg g−1 GAE) and exhibited high TEAC, the latter being highest in L1 at 328.0, 345.7 and 1097.4, and least in L6 at 304.6, 294.5 and 755.1 µmol Trolox g−1 sample for the respective assays. Phytochemical accumulation, TPC and TEAC were least in woody stem (WS) at 1.42 mg g−1 DW; 8.7 mg g−1 GAE; 21.9, 24.9 and 110.0 µmol Trolox g−1 sample; while herbaceous stem (HS) contained up to 4.37 mg g−1 DW; 27.8 mg g−1 GAE; 110.9, 124.8 and 469.7 µmol Trolox g−1 sample, respectively. Roots contained up to 1.85 mg g−1 DW, 15.8 mg−1 GAE and TEAC of 36.8, 41.5 and 156.7 µmol Trolox g−1 sample. Amongst the organs, therefore, coffee leaves possessed higher values than roasted beans on the basis of phytochemicals, TPC and TEAC. Leaves also contain carotenoids and chlorophylls pigments with potent health benefits. With appropriate processing methods, a beverage prepared from leaves (coffee leaf tea) could be a rich source of phytochemicals and antioxidants with therapeutic and pharmacological values for human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkaloids; antioxidant capacity; carotenoids; chlorophylls; Coffea arabica L.; phenolic compounds; sucrose alkaloids; antioxidant capacity; carotenoids; chlorophylls; Coffea arabica L.; phenolic compounds; sucrose
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Acidri, R.; Sawai, Y.; Sugimoto, Y.; Handa, T.; Sasagawa, D.; Masunaga, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Nishihara, E. Phytochemical Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Plant Organs Compared to Green and Roasted Coffee Beans. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 93.

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