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Open AccessArticle

Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Three Natural Antioxidants on a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease: A Comparative Study

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Department of Behavior Neurobiology, Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
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Department of Synaptic Signaling and Communications, Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
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Department Biological Effects of Natural and Synthetic Substances, Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
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Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University, Varna 9002, Bulgaria
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Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 89, 95123 Catania, Italy
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Department of Sensory Neurobiology, Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
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IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, Via Provinciale Palermo, Contrada Casazza, 98124 Messina, Italy
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Department of Biochemical Pharmacology and Drug Design, Institute of Molecular Biology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
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Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Jastrzebiec, 05-552 Magdalenka, Poland
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Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Digital Health and Patient Safety, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 23, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010049
Received: 10 November 2019 / Revised: 28 December 2019 / Accepted: 30 December 2019 / Published: 6 January 2020
We compared the neuroprotective action of three natural bio-antioxidants (AOs): ellagic acid (EA), α-lipoic acid (LA), and myrtenal (Myrt) in an experimental model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) that was induced in male Wistar rats through an intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The animals were divided into five groups: the sham-operated (SO) control group; striatal 6-OHDA-lesioned control group; and three groups of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats pre-treated for five days with EA, LA, and Myrt (50 mg/kg; intraperitoneally- i.p.), respectively. On the 2nd and the 3rd week post lesion, the animals were subjected to several behavioral tests: apomorphine-induced rotation; rotarod; and the passive avoidance test. Biochemical evaluation included assessment of main oxidative stress parameters as well as dopamine (DA) levels in brain homogenates. The results showed that all three test compounds improved learning and memory performance as well as neuromuscular coordination. Biochemical assays showed that all three compounds substantially decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and restored catalase (CAT) activity and DA levels that were impaired by the challenge with 6-OHDA. Based on these results, we can conclude that the studied AOs demonstrate properties that are consistent with significant antiparkinsonian effects. The most powerful neuroprotective effect was observed with Myrt, and this work represents the first demonstration of its anti-Parkinsonian impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: ellagic acid; α-lipoic acid; myrtenal; rat; Parkinson’s disease; neuroprotection; antioxidant activity; dopamine ellagic acid; α-lipoic acid; myrtenal; rat; Parkinson’s disease; neuroprotection; antioxidant activity; dopamine
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Tancheva, L.P.; Lazarova, M.I.; Alexandrova, A.V.; Dragomanova, S.T.; Nicoletti, F.; Tzvetanova, E.R.; Hodzhev, Y.K.; Kalfin, R.E.; Miteva, S.A.; Mazzon, E.; Tzvetkov, N.T.; Atanasov, A.G. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Three Natural Antioxidants on a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease: A Comparative Study. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 49.

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