Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mango Peel Liqueurs (Mangifera indica L.) Produced by Different Methods of Maceration
Department of Food Technology, Instituto Federal do Sertão Pernambucano, Petrolina PE 56314-522, Brazil
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Semiárido, Petrolina PE 56302-970, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040102
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
The present work had the objective of producing liqueurs from mango peels (varieties “Haden” and “Tommy Atkins”) by processes of alcoholic maceration and maceration with pectinase, as well as to evaluate bioactive compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and fluorescence-detection (RP-HPLC/DAD/FD) and in vitro antioxidant activity (AOX), for by-product potential reuse. Alcoholic maceration in wine ethanol (65% v/v) produced liqueurs with higher phytochemical and AOX content. Maceration with pectinase resulted in liqueurs with higher quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside content. In relation to mango varieties, Haden liqueurs presented higher bioactive content than Tommy Atkins liqueurs. The liqueurs presented high antioxidant activity. The main bioactive compounds found were flavanols (epicatechin-gallate, epigallocatechin-gallate), flavonols (quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside and rutin), and phenolic acids (gallic acid, o-coumaric acid, and syringic acid). The present study showed that the production of liqueur enabled the recovering of an important part of the bioactive content of mango peels, suggesting an alternative for the recovery of antioxidant substances from this by-product.