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Flavonoids: New Frontier for Immuno-Regulation and Breast Cancer Control

1
Department Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
2
Physiology Graduate Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
3
Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
4
Department Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040103
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 5 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids: Immune-Regulation and Health)
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Abstract

Breast cancer (BC) remains the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the US, despite advances in detection and treatment. In addition, breast cancer survivors often struggle with long-term treatment related comorbidities. Identifying novel therapies that are effective while minimizing toxicity is critical in curtailing this disease. Flavonoids, a subclass of plant polyphenols, are emerging as promising treatment options for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to anti-oxidant properties, flavonoids can directly interact with proteins, making them ideal small molecules for the modulation of enzymes, transcription factors and cell surface receptors. Of particular interest is the ability of flavonoids to modulate the tumor associated macrophage function. However, clinical applications of flavonoids in cancer trials are limited. Epidemiological and smaller clinical studies have been largely hypothesis generating. Future research should aim at addressing known challenges with a broader use of preclinical models and investigating enhanced dose-delivery systems that can overcome limited bioavailability of dietary flavonoids. In this review, we discuss the structure-functional impact of flavonoids and their action on breast tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment, with an emphasis on their clinical role in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer therapeutics; cancer prevention; metastasis; chemoprevention; flavonoids; immune-regulation; apigenin; obesity; foods for health; inflammation; macrophages cancer therapeutics; cancer prevention; metastasis; chemoprevention; flavonoids; immune-regulation; apigenin; obesity; foods for health; inflammation; macrophages
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sudhakaran, M.; Sardesai, S.; Doseff, A.I. Flavonoids: New Frontier for Immuno-Regulation and Breast Cancer Control. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 103.

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