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Antioxidants 2019, 8(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8030069

Mechanism of Rapid Nuclear Factor-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) Activation via Membrane-Associated Estrogen Receptors: Roles of NADPH Oxidase 1, Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)

Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan
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Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract

Membrane-associated estrogen receptors (ER)-α36 and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) play important roles in the estrogen’s rapid non-genomic actions including stimulation of cell proliferation. Estrogen via these receptors induces rapid activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of detoxification and antioxidant systems, playing a key role in the metabolic reprogramming to support cell proliferation. This review highlights the possible mechanism underlying rapid Nrf2 activation via membrane-associated estrogen receptors by estrogen and phytoestrogens. Stimulation of ER-α36-GPER signaling complex rapidly induces Src-mediated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leading to a kinase-mediated signaling cascade. We propose a novel hypothesis that ER-α36-GPER signaling initially induces rapid and temporal activation of NADPH oxidase 1 to generate superoxide, which subsequently activates redox-sensitive neutral sphingomyelinase 2 generating the lipid signaling mediator ceramide. Generation of ceramide is required for Ras activation and ceramide-protein kinase C ζ-casein kinase 2 (CK2) signaling. Notably, CK2 enhances chaperone activity of the Cdc37-Hsp90 complex supporting activation of various signaling kinases including Src, Raf and Akt (protein kinase B). Activation of Nrf2 may be induced by cooperation of two signaling pathways, (i) Nrf2 stabilization by direct phosphorylation by CK2 and (ii) EGFR-Ras-PI 3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt axis which inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3β leading to enhanced nuclear transport and stability of Nrf2. View Full-Text
Keywords: estrogen; MCF-7; Nrf2; ER-α36; GPER; EGFR; NOX1; neutral sphingomyelinase 2; ceramide; ERK; p38; PKCδ; PKCζ; CK2; Akt; PI3K; phytoestrogen estrogen; MCF-7; Nrf2; ER-α36; GPER; EGFR; NOX1; neutral sphingomyelinase 2; ceramide; ERK; p38; PKCδ; PKCζ; CK2; Akt; PI3K; phytoestrogen
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ishii, T.; Warabi, E. Mechanism of Rapid Nuclear Factor-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) Activation via Membrane-Associated Estrogen Receptors: Roles of NADPH Oxidase 1, Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). Antioxidants 2019, 8, 69.

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