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Antioxidants 2019, 8(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8030060

Chemical Properties, Fatty-Acid Composition, and Antioxidant Activity of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill.) Fruits

1
Department of Medicine, Lab of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Thessaly, Papakyriazi 22, 41222 Larissa, Greece
2
Department of Biosystems Engineering/Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, 41110 Larissa, Greece
3
Department of Food Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, 43100 Karditsa, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 10 March 2019
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Abstract

In this study, the content composition and antioxidant activity of goji berry fruits from two species (Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense) were assessed. The total carbohydrate and phenolic contents were evaluated using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy, while the antioxidant activity of fruits was examined with two in vitro methods, which are based on the scavenging activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) free radicals. The fatty-acid profile was determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of this study indicate that the fruits of L. barbarum present higher concentrations in carbohydrates and phenolics than L. chinense Mill. fruits. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity based on the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) measurements of DPPH• and ABTS•+ free-radical scavenging was higher in L. barbarum than L. chinense Mill. Also, the GCMS analysis confirms the high levels of linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids contained in the fruits of both species. Finally, the results of this study clearly show that the concentration of bioactive and antioxidant molecules is higher in L. barbarum than in L. chinense fruits, which was also confirmed by ATR-FT-IR measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: goji berry; total carbohydrate content; carbohydrate content; phenolic content; fatty acids goji berry; total carbohydrate content; carbohydrate content; phenolic content; fatty acids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Skenderidis, P.; Lampakis, D.; Giavasis, I.; Leontopoulos, S.; Petrotos, K.; Hadjichristodoulou, C.; Tsakalof, A. Chemical Properties, Fatty-Acid Composition, and Antioxidant Activity of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill.) Fruits. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 60.

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