Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of the In Vitro Wound-Healing Activity of Calabrian Honeys
Next Article in Special Issue
Luteolin 7-Sulfate Attenuates Melanin Synthesis through Inhibition of CREB- and MITF-Mediated Tyrosinase Expression
Previous Article in Journal
Correction of Experimental Retinal Ischemia by l-Isomer of Ethylmethylhydroxypyridine Malate
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Potential Role of Flavonoids in Treating Chronic Inflammatory Diseases with a Special Focus on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Apigenin

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Center for Molecular Virology and Neuroimmunology, Center for Cancer Biology, Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8020035
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Flavonoids on Cell Signalling Pathways)
  |  
PDF [20285 KB, uploaded 19 February 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Inflammation has been reported to be intimately linked to the development or worsening of several non-infectious diseases. A number of chronic conditions such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders emerge as a result of tissue injury and genomic changes induced by constant low-grade inflammation in and around the affected tissue or organ. The existing therapies for most of these chronic conditions sometimes leave more debilitating effects than the disease itself, warranting the advent of safer, less toxic, and more cost-effective therapeutic alternatives for the patients. For centuries, flavonoids and their preparations have been used to treat various human illnesses, and their continual use has persevered throughout the ages. This review focuses on the anti-inflammatory actions of flavonoids against chronic illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neuroinflammation with a special focus on apigenin, a relatively less toxic and non-mutagenic flavonoid with remarkable pharmacodynamics. Additionally, inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) due to diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) gives ready access to circulating lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), causing edema, further inflammation, and demyelination. As the dearth of safe anti-inflammatory therapies is dire in the case of CNS-related disorders, we reviewed the neuroprotective actions of apigenin and other flavonoids. Existing epidemiological and pre-clinical studies present considerable evidence in favor of developing apigenin as a natural alternative therapy against chronic inflammatory conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural products; flavonoids; apigenin; dendritic cells; neuroinflammation; chronic inflammation natural products; flavonoids; apigenin; dendritic cells; neuroinflammation; chronic inflammation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ginwala, R.; Bhavsar, R.; Chigbu, D.G.I.; Jain, P.; Khan, Z.K. Potential Role of Flavonoids in Treating Chronic Inflammatory Diseases with a Special Focus on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Apigenin. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 35.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Antioxidants EISSN 2076-3921 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top