Free and Bound Phenolics of Buckwheat Varieties: HPLC Characterization, Antioxidant Activity, and Inhibitory Potency towards α-Glucosidase with Molecular Docking Analysis
College of Food Science and Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120606
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
Free and bound phenolic fractions from six buckwheat varieties were investigated for their compositions, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase. The results showed that different buckwheat varieties have significant differences in phenolic/flavonoid contents, and these contents were found in higher quantities in free form than in bound form. HPLC results revealed that rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were the most abundant components in free and bound forms, whereas dihydromyricetin was found only in the bound form. Free phenolics showed higher antioxidant activities of DPPH, ABTS+, OH•, and FRAP than those of bound phenolics. Strong inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase by the free/bound phenolic fractions were found in all buckwheat varieties, and free phenolics showed stronger α-glucosidase inhibition than that of the corresponding bound phenolics. More importantly, the main phenolic compounds observed in the buckwheat varieties were subjected to molecular docking analysis to provide insight into their interactions with α-glucosidase. The contributions by individual phenolics to the observed variation was analysed by Pearson correlation coefficient analysis and principal component analysis. The present study provides a comprehensive comparison for the phenolic fractions of buckwheat varieties and identify the main contributors to antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.