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Antioxidants and Retinal Diseases
Open AccessArticle

The Disulfide Stress Response and Protein S-thioallylation Caused by Allicin and Diallyl Polysulfanes in Bacillus subtilis as Revealed by Transcriptomics and Proteomics

1
Institute of Biology-Microbiology, Freie Universität Berlin, D-14195 Berlin, Germany
2
Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ngo Quyen Str. 2, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
3
Faculty of Biotechnology, Ho Chi Minh University of Food Industry, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
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Department of Plant Physiology, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany
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Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany
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Institute of Microbiology, University of Greifswald, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany
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School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
8
ECOspray Ltd., Grange Farm, Hilborough, Thetford IP26 5BT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120605
Received: 13 October 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
Garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) produce antimicrobial compounds, such as diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin) and diallyl polysulfanes. Here, we investigated the transcriptome and protein S-thioallylomes under allicin and diallyl tetrasulfane (DAS4) exposure in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Allicin and DAS4 caused a similar thiol-specific oxidative stress response, protein and DNA damage as revealed by the induction of the OhrR, PerR, Spx, YodB, CatR, HypR, AdhR, HxlR, LexA, CymR, CtsR, and HrcA regulons in the transcriptome. At the proteome level, we identified, in total, 108 S-thioallylated proteins under allicin and/or DAS4 stress. The S-thioallylome includes enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of surfactin (SrfAA, SrfAB), amino acids (SerA, MetE, YxjG, YitJ, CysJ, GlnA, YwaA), nucleotides (PurB, PurC, PyrAB, GuaB), translation factors (EF-Tu, EF-Ts, EF-G), antioxidant enzymes (AhpC, MsrB), as well as redox-sensitive MarR/OhrR and DUF24-family regulators (OhrR, HypR, YodB, CatR). Growth phenotype analysis revealed that the low molecular weight thiol bacillithiol, as well as the OhrR, Spx, and HypR regulons, confer protection against allicin and DAS4 stress. Altogether, we show here that allicin and DAS4 cause a strong oxidative, disulfide and sulfur stress response in the transcriptome and widespread S-thioallylation of redox-sensitive proteins in B. subtilis. The results further reveal that allicin and polysulfanes have similar modes of actions and thiol-reactivities and modify a similar set of redox-sensitive proteins by S-thioallylation.
Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; allicin; diallyl polysulfane; bacillithiol; S-thioallylation Bacillus subtilis; allicin; diallyl polysulfane; bacillithiol; S-thioallylation
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Chi, B.K.; Huyen, N.T.T.; Loi, V.V.; Gruhlke, M.C.H.; Schaffer, M.; Mäder, U.; Maaß, S.; Becher, D.; Bernhardt, J.; Arbach, M.; Hamilton, C.J.; Slusarenko, A.J.; Antelmann, H. The Disulfide Stress Response and Protein S-thioallylation Caused by Allicin and Diallyl Polysulfanes in Bacillus subtilis as Revealed by Transcriptomics and Proteomics. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 605.

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